Ca trù singing , UNESCO INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE 2009, VIETNAM


Uploaded on Dec 22, 2009

UNESCO: Urgent Safeguarding List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity – 2009
URL: http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/USL…
Description: Ca trù is a complex form of sung poetry found in the north of Viet Nam using lyrics written in traditional Vietnamese poetic forms. Ca trù groups comprise three performers: a female singer who uses breathing techniques and vibrato to create unique ornamented sounds, while playing the clappers or striking a wooden box, and two instrumentalists who produce the deep tone of a three-stringed lute and the strong sounds of a praise drum. Some Ca trù performances also include dance. The varied forms of Ca trù fulfill different social purposes, including worship singing, singing for entertainment, singing in royal palaces and competitive singing. Ca trù has fifty-six different musical forms or melodies, each of which is called thể cách. Folk artists transmit the music and poems that comprise Ca trù pieces by oral and technical transmission, formerly, within their family line, but now to any who wish to learn. Ongoing wars and insufficient awareness caused Ca trù to fall into disuse during the twentieth century. Although the artists have made great efforts to transmit the old repertoire to younger generations, Ca trù is still under threat of being lost due to the diminishing number and age of practitioners.
Country(ies): Viet Nam
© 2008 Vietnamese Institute for Musicology, Hanoi, Vietnam
Duration: 01:01:44 – Support: DVD (0030900017)

Congrès International de Yoga / du 29 Mars au 1er Avril 2013 , VOGÜé, FRANCE


Congrès International de Yoga

du 29 Mars au 1er Avril 2013

A Vogüé (près de Montélimar)

Image

Thème : « TANTRA, l’art de s’émerveiller »

La perspective des « Tantra » imprègne le Hatha-Yoga
mais n’en demeure pas moins mystérieuse pour la plupart d’entre nous.
Ce congrès permettra de clarifier ce magnifique sujet, grâce au concours
des plus grands spécialistes de ces textes.
Des indianistes, des philosophes, des scientifiques, des religieux, des formateurs d’enseignants issus
des grands courants contemporains du yoga, viendront nous faire partager leurs connaissances et leurs expériences.
Ils chercheront à nous montrer les chemins d’éveil à la capacité d’émerveillement
présente en chacun de nous.

Chaque journée, notre programme se déroulera ainsi :
– un atelier matinal où vous pourrez choisir votre professeur
– deux autres ateliers de pratique dans vos salles respectives
– trois fois par jour nous écouterons ensemble les conférences plénières

Nous avons prévu des soirées culturelles et festives.

Nous serons très heureux de partager avec vous tous ces moments exceptionnels

Renseignements et pré-inscriptions à partir de septembre 2012
dans les écoles françaises de yoga d’Aix et de Lyon.

mail.aca.yoga@wanadoo.fr – yoga@conservatoireduyoga.net

04 42 27 92 20 et 06 70 31 27 27

http://www.conservatoire-du-yoga.net/

Congrès Pâques 2013 toutes les informations sont en ligne ICI
Inscrivez vous dès à présent

Nathalie Henrich, John Smith and Joe Wolfe : Harmonic singing (or overtone singing) vs normal singing


Harmonic singing (or overtone singing) vs normal singing

Harmonic singing shares techniques with diphonic singing, overtone singing, xoomi singing, sygyt singing, throat singing, Tuva singing etc. We explain some of the acoustics of this style of singing in terms of the measured acoustical response of the vocal tract. In this technique, the singer emphasises one high harmonic of the voice to such an extent that it is heard separately from the low pitched note being sung. Different notes in the harmonic series may be chosen by changing the frequency of the resonance in the vocal tract that gives rise to it.

For background information on speech and ordinary singing, see our Introduction to the acoustics of the vocal tract. For background about our research and techniques, see this link. On this page, we begin by looking at how the vocal tract behaves for a whisper, where the resonances of the tract are most clear, then for normal singing, then for harmonic singing.

Whisper. In the first figure, a subject whispers the vowel in ‘hoard’. We show the frequency response of the vocal tract (For an explanation of the measurements, follow this link.) The sound of the whisper itself is masked by the injected signal used to measure the vocal tract resonances. The figure shows several peaks, indicated by the arrows. At these frequencies, the sound produced at the vocal folds is most effectively transmitted as sound produced in the external air. (Technically, these are peaks in the acoustic impedance of the vocal tract. At these resonant frequencies, the tract operates most effectively as an impedance transformer between the relatively high acoustic impedance of the tract and the low impedance of the radiation field at the mouth.)

 

graph showing the frequency response of the vocal tract for a whisper

Normal singing. In the figure below, the subject sings the same vowel at the pitch Bb3 (117 Hz). In this graph, you can see the harmonics of the voice, and you can see that the fourth and sixth harmonics appear stronger in the sound spectrum because they are near resonances of the tract.

 

graph showing the frequency response of the vocal tract for a sung vowel OR

Over the range shown and for this vowel, this subject’s vocal tract has six resonances, which are indicated by the arrows. Note that the subject changes the first two resonances a little between whispering and singing. The frequencies of these two resonances determine the vowel in a particular accent. It is not unusual for people to have different accents when whispering, speaking and singing. The higher resonances are also substantially changed, probably because rather different vocal mechanisms are used in whispering and singing.

Harmonic singing. The next graphs show two examples of harmonic singing. In this technique, one of the vocal tract resonances is made much stronger, while all the others are weakened. The strong resonance can be made so strong that it selects one of the harmonics and makes it so much stronger than its neighbours that we can hear it as a separate note. Hear it is the eighth harmonic that is amplified. Although the fundamental is only 8 dB lower than the selected harmonic, the fundamental lies in a range in which our ears are much less sensitive, so it sounds much less loud.

 

graph showing the frequency response of the vocal tract for harmonic singing

How do you do it? With some difficulty! One way to strengthen the second resonance, at the expense of the others, is to make a small mouth opening and also a relatively tight constriction between the tongue and the roof of the mouth. But mainly it takes a lot of practice, using feedback. Usually the feedback comes from finding a reasonably reverberant environment (bathroom, stairwell) and listening for the individual harmonics. (Another type of feedback is to use a of the spectrum, using your computer’s sound card. Yet another display uses the graphs shown here, but this last is not readily available.)

In traditional practice, some singers hold the sung pitch (fundamental) constant, and then tune the vocal tract resonances to choose one or another harmonic. They can therefore play the ‘instrument’ using the natural harmonics, just like players of the natural trumpet or horn. Skilled practitioners can vary the voice pitch and the resonant frequency independently. In the next graph, the fundamental has been lowered and the resonance has been raised, with the result that it is the twelfth harmonic that is amplified.

 

graph showing the frequency response of the vocal tract for armonic singing

For some harmonic singers, more complicated effects than those described here may be involved. It has been suggested that, for some sygyt singers, the strong resonance in the vocal tract may drive an oscillation in the false vocal folds. This could produce a stronger signal at the high pitch. Further, because the false vocal folds would be nonlinear oscillators, they would produce strong components at integral multiples of the high pitch frequency, ie at n*f0, 2n*f0, 3n*f0 etc. An example of such a spectrum and an explanation of the false vocal fold mechanism is given by Chen-Gia Tsai at this link.

This research is part of a project investigation the acoustics of singing in general. It is undertaken by Nathalie Henrich, John Smith and Joe Wolfe.

 

 

 


Some related pages and explanatory notes

Some explanatory notes

http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/jw/xoomi.html

WIKIPEDIA : Overtone singing


Overtone singing

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 

Overtone singing, also known as overtone chanting, or harmonic singing, is a type of singing in which the singer manipulates the resonances (or formants) created as air travels from the lungs, past the vocal folds, and out the lips to produce a melody.

The partials (fundamental and overtones) of a sound wave made by the human voice can be selectively amplified by changing the shape of the resonant cavities of the mouth, larynx and pharynx.[1] This resonant tuning allows the singer to create apparently more than one pitch at the same time (the fundamental and a selected overtone), while in effect still generating a single fundamental frequency with his/her vocal folds.

Another name for overtone singing is throat singing, but that term is also used for Inuit throat singing, which is produced differently.

Contents

Asia

Mongolia

It is believed the art of throat singing has originated from south western Mongolia in today’s Khovd and Govi-Altai region. Today, throat singing is found throughout the country and Mongolia is often considered as the most active place of throat singing in the world.[2] The most commonly practiced style, Khöömii (written in Cyrillic as Хөөмий), can be divided up into the following categories..

  • uruulyn / labial khöömii
  • tagnain / palatal khöömii
  • khamryn / nasal khöömii
  • bagalzuuryn, khooloin / glottal, throat khöömii
  • tseejiin khondiin, khevliin / chest cavity, stomach khöömii
  • turlegt or khosmoljin khöömii / khöömii combined with long song

Mongolians also sing many other styles such as “karkhiraa” (literally “growling”) and “isgeree”.

Many of these styles are also practiced around neighboring regions such as Tuva and Altai.

Tuva

Main article: Tuvan throat singing

Tuvan throat singing is practiced by the Tuva people of southern Siberia. The history of Tuvan throat singing reaches very far back[citation needed]. There is a wide range of vocalizations, including Sygyt, Kargyraa (which also uses a second sound source), Khoomei, Chylandyk, Dumchuktaar, and Ezengileer. Most of these styles are closely related to the styles and variations in neighboring Mongolia.

Altai and Khakassia

Tuva’s neighbouring states, the Altai Republic to the west, and Khakassia to the northwest, have developed forms of throat singing called ‘’kai’’, or ‘’khai’’. In Altai, this is used mostly for epic poetry performance, to the accompaniment of topshur. Altai narrators (“kai-chi“) perform in kargyraa, khöömei and sygyt styles, which are similar to Tuvan. They also have their own style, a very high harmonics, emerging from kargyraa. Variations of kai are called karkyra, sybysky, homei and sygyt. The first well-known kai-chi was Kalkin.

Chukchi Peninsula

The Chukchi people of Chukchi Peninsula in the extreme northeast of Russia also practice a form of throat singing.[3]

Tibet

Tibetan Buddhist chanting is a sub-genre of throat singing. Most often the chants hold to the lower pitches possible in throat singing. Various ceremonies and prayers call for throat singing in Tibetan Buddhism, often with more than one monk chanting at a time. There are different Tibetan throat singing styles, such as Gyuke (Tibetan: རྒྱུད་སྐད་, Wylie: rgyud skad) – style with the lowest pitch of voice; Dzoke (Tibetan: མཛོད་སྐད་, Wylie: mdzod skad) and Gyer (Tibetan: གྱེར་, Wylie: gyer).

Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan

The oral poetry of Kazakhstan and the Uzbek region of Karakalpakstan sometimes enters the realm of throat singing.

Pakistan

Balochi Nur Sur is still a popular and one of the ancient form of Overtone singing in parts of Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan espcially in the Sulaiman Mountains.

Hokkaido

The Ainu of Hokkaidō, Japan, once practiced a type of throat singing called rekuhkara, which has since become extinct. The last singer of rekuhkara died in 1976, but some recordings exist.[3]

Europe

Sardinia

Main article: Tenores

In the Barbagia area on the island of Sardinia (Italy), one of the two different styles of polyphonic singing is marked by the use of a throaty voice. This kind of song is called a tenore. The other style, known as cuncordu, does not use throat singing. A tenore is practiced by groups of four male singers each of whom has a distinct role; the oche or boche (pronounced /oke/ or /boke/, “voice”) is the solo voice, while the mesu oche or mesu boche (“half voice”), contra (“against”) and bassu (“bass”) – listed in descending pitch order – form a chorus (another meaning of tenore). Oche and mesu oche sing in a regular voice, whereas contra and bassu sing with a technique affecting the larynx. In 2005, Unesco classed the canto a tenore among intangible world heritage.[4] Among the most well known groups who perform a tenore are Tenores di Bitti, Tenores de Orosei, Tenores di Oniferi and Tenores di Neoneli.

Northern Europe

The Sami people of the northern parts of Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula in Russia, have a singing genre called yoik. While overtone techniques are not a defining feature of yoik, individuals sometimes utilize overtones in the production of yoik.

Bashkortostan

The Bashkirs of Bashkortostan have a style of overtone singing called özläü (sometimes spelled uzlyau; Bashkort Өзләү), which nearly died out. In addition, Bashkorts also sing uzlyau while playing the kurai, a national instrument. This technique of vocalizing into a flute can also be found in folk music as far west as the Balkans and Hungary.

North America

Inuit

The resurgence of a once-dying Inuit tradition called katajjaq is currently under way in Canada. Inuit throat singing was a form of entertainment among Inuit women while the men were away on hunting trips. It was an activity that was primarily done by Inuit women, though men also did it. In the Inuit language Inuktitut, throat singing is called katajjaq, pirkusirtuk or nipaquhiit depending on the Canadian Arctic region. It was regarded more as a type of vocal or breathing game in the Inuit culture rather than a form of music. Inuit throat singing is generally done by two individuals but can involve four or more people together as well. In Inuit throat singing, two Inuit women would face each other either standing or crouching down while holding each other’s arms. One would lead with short deep rhythmic sounds while the other would respond. The leader would repeat sounds with short gaps in between. The follower would fill in these gaps with her own rhythmic sounds. Sometimes both Inuit women would be doing a dance like movement like rocking from left to right while throat singing. The practice is compared more to a game or competition than to a musical style. In the game, Inuit women sit or stand face-to-face and create rhythmic patterns.

Texas

Blind Willie Johnson is not a true overtone singer, according to the National Geographic, but his ability to shift from guttural grunting noises to a soft lullaby is suggestive of the tonal timbres of overtone singing.[5]

Africa

South Africa

Xhosa women of South Africa have a low, rhythmic style of throat-singing called eefing that is often accompanied by call-and-response vocals.[6]

Non-traditional styles

Canada, United States and Europe

The 1920s Texan singer of cowboy songs, Arthur Miles, independently created a style of overtone singing, similar to sygyt, as a supplement to the normal yodelling of country western music.

Starting in the 1960s, some musicians in the West either have collaborated with traditional throat singers or ventured into the realm of throat singing and overtone singing, or both. Some made original musical contributions and helped this art rediscover its transcultural universality. As harmonics are universal to all physical sounds, the notion of authenticity is best understood in terms of musical quality. Musicians of note in this genre include Collegium Vocale Köln (who first began using this technique in 1968), Michael Vetter, David Hykes,[7] Jim Cole, Ry Cooder, Paul Pena (mixing the traditional Tuvan style with that of American Blues), Steve Sklar and Kiva (specializing in jazz/ world beat genres and composing for overtone choirs). Composer Baird Hersey and his group Prana with Krishna Das (overtone singing and Hindu mantra), Canadian songwriter Nathan Rogers has become an adept throat singer and teaches Tuvan Throat Singing in Winnipeg, Manitoba.[citation needed]

Paul Pena was featured in the documentary Genghis Blues which tells the story of his pilgrimage to Tuva to compete in their annual throatsinging competition. The film won the documentary award at the 1999 Sundance Film Festival, and was nominated for an Oscar in 2000.

Tuvan singer Sainkho Namtchylak has collaborated with free jazz musicians such as Evan Parker and Ned Rothenberg. Lester Bowie and Ornette Coleman worked with the Tenores di Bitti, and Eleanor Hovda has written a piece using the Xhosa style of singing. DJs and performers of electronic music like The KLF have also merged their music with throat singing, overtone singing, or with the theory of harmonics behind it.

A capella singer Avi Kaplan also exhibited overtone singing during his group’s( Pentatonix ) performances. He merged throat singing together with dubstep a capella.

In Ireland Anúna have revived a technique of overtone chanting mentioned in the 8th century manuscript Cath Almaine, the technique uses one held drone with a shifting three or four note overtone series. Expert pitched overtone performer Aengus Ó Maoláin joins Anúna on several numbers.

Several contemporary classical composers have incorporated overtone singing into their works. Karlheinz Stockhausen was one of the first, with Stimmung in 1968. “Past Life Melodies” for SATB chorus by Australian composer Sarah Hopkins (b. 1958) also calls for this technique. In Water Passion after St. Matthew by Tan Dun, the soprano and bass soloists sing in a variety of techniques including overtone singing of the Mongolian style.

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India

Ethnomusicologist John Levy recorded a Rajasthani singer utilizing overtones in imitation of either a jaw harp or a double-flute. There is no tradition of this style of singing there.[citation needed]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Titze 2008; Titze 1994; Pariser & Zimmerman 2004
  2. ^ Sklar, 2005
  3. ^ a b 4.3.02. “Inuit Throat-Singing”. Mustrad.org.uk. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
  4. ^ Bandinu 2006.
  5. ^ Miller, Bruce. “Overtone Singing Music”. National Geographic. Retrieved February 20, 2012.
  6. ^ Smithsonian Global Sound – Throat Singing Retrieved on 2009-03-13.
  7. ^ Bellamy and MacLean 2005, 515.

References

  • Bandinu, Omar (2006). “Il canto a tenore: dai nuraghi all’Unesco“, Siti 2, no.3 (July–September): 16–21.
  • Bellamy, Isabel, and Donald MacLean (2005). Radiant Healing: The Many Paths to Personal Harmony and Planetary Wholeness. Buddina, Queensland (Australia): Joshua Books. ISBN 0-9756878-5-9
  • Haouli, Janete El (2006). Demetrio Stratos: en busca de la voz-música. México, D. F.: Radio Educación—Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes.
  • Levin, Theodore C., and Michael E. Edgerton (1999). “The Throat Singers of Tuva“. Scientific American 281, no. 3 (September): 80–87.
  • Levin, Theodore, and Valentina Süzükei (2006). Where Rivers and Mountains Sing. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34715-7.
  • Pariser, David, and Enid Zimmerman (2004). “Learning in the Visual Arts: Characteristics of Gifted and Talented Individuals,” in Handbook of Research and Policy in Art Education, Elliot W. Eisner and Michael D. Day (editors). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. p. 388. ISBN 978-0-8058-4972-1.
  • Saus, Wolfgang (2004). Oberton Singen. Schönau im Odenwald: Traumzeit-Verlag. ISBN 3-933825-36-9 (German).
  • Titze, Ingo R. (1994). Principles of Voice Production. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-717893-3 Reprinted Iowa City: National Center for Voice and Speech, 2000. (NCVS.org) ISBN 978-0-87414-122-1 .
  • Titze, Ingo R. (2008). “The Human Instrument”. Scientific American 298, no. 1 (July):94–101. PM 18225701
  • Tongeren, Mark C. van (2002). Overtone Singing: Physics and Metaphysics of Harmonics in East and West. Amsterdam: Fusica. ISBN 90-807163-2-4 (pbk), ISBN 90-807163-1-6 (cloth).
  • Sklar, Steve (2005). “Types of throat singing” “[1]

External links

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