Category Archives: TRAN QUANG HAI

LISTING OF VIETNAMESE MUSICIANS AND RESEARCHERS IN VIET NAM AND ABROAD PRACTISING TRADITIONAL VIETNAMESE MUSIC


LISTING OF VIETNAMESE MUSICIANS AND RESEARCHERS IN VIET NAM AND ABROAD PRACTISING TRADITIONAL VIETNAMESE MUSIC

 

Xin ti`m no+i dda^y danh sa’ch tuye^?n cho.n nhu+~ng nha.c si~ va` da^n to^.c nha.c ho.c gia o+? Vie^.t Nam hay ha?i ngoa.i . Tie^?u su+? va` sinh hoa.t a^m nha.c cu?a mo^~i ngu+o+`i co’ the^? ti`m tha^’y tre^n trang nha cu?a ho.

LISTING OF VIETNAMESE MUSICIANS AND RESEARCHERS IN VIET NAM AND ABROAD PRATISING TRADITIONAL VIETNAMESE MUSIC

Please find herewith some of famous Vietnamese musicians and ethnomusicologists in Vietnam and abroad . Each one is presented with a short bio . Their bio and activities can be found on their homepages respectively .

Veuillez trouver ci-joint quelques musiciens et ethnomusicologues vietnamiens qui vivent au Viet Nam ou à l’étranger. Leur bio et leurs activités peuvent être lus sur leurs sites .

Xin ti`m no+i dda^y danh sa’ch tuye^?n cho.n nhu+~ng nha.c si~ va` da^n to^.c nha.c ho.c gia o+? Vie^.t Nam hay ha?i ngoa.i . Tie^?u su+? va` sinh hoa.t a^m nha.c cu?a mo^~i ngu+o+`i co’ the^? ti`m tha^’y tre^n trang nha cu?a ho.
LISTING OF VIETNAMESE MUSICIANS AND RESEARCHERS IN VIET NAM AND ABROAD PRATISING TRADITIONAL VIETNAMESE MUSIC

Prof. TRAN VAN KHE (1924-2015)
Professor Tran Van Khe is one of the greatest masters of the traditional Vietnamese music. Born into a family with four generations of musicians, he was taught the musical tradition of the family by his paternal aunt Tran Ngoc Vien and his maternal uncle Nguyen Tri Khuong, having lost his parents at a very early age. Professor Tran Van Khe is a Doctor in Musicology; he carried out research at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (C.N.R.S.), has been a teacher at Paris-Sorbonne University, and is Honorary Member of the Conseil international de la musique (Unesco). His scientific research along with his activity in traditional music (participation in numerous festivals, several recordings edited with Ocora, l’Unesco and A.C.C.T.) have led to his receiving many distinctions and prizes from prestigious universities, academies and international institutions. He is able to play many Vietnamese instruments: dan kim or dan nguyet (moon-shaped lute), dan tranh (sixteen stringed zither), dan co or dan nhi (two-stringed fiddle), dan ty ba (pear-shaped, four stringed lute) and the trong nhac, ceremonial drum. He knows how to recite poems and sing in traditional styles of the North and the South.

Professor Tran’s expertise includes all Asian music, particularly Indian, Persian, Chinese, Japanese and Arabic musical traditions. Having lived in Paris for about 50 years, and traveled world wide, lecturing and performing, he has played key role in introducing Asian music into the western world. In the past 50 years, He has produced a number of Ph. D.’s and tought several thousands of students all over the world.
Website in English and French. He passed away in Vietnam on June 24th 2015.
https://tranvankhe1921.co

Prof. NGUYEN VINH BAO (1918 – )
100 years-old Professor Nguyen Vinh Bao is widely admired not only for his scholarship in Vietnamese folk music but also his skill at using the computer as a teaching aid.

Prof. Vinh Bao, who lives and works in Ho Chi Minh City, has been known for years as a keen amateur music teacher. Now, he has added another feather to his cap by learning how to use the internet at 90, and using this skill to teach his music to people around the world.

On his desktop are symbols of musical software like Quickcame pro-5000, not something one would associate with nonagenarians.

Bao gives lessons via the internet: he plays a musical instrument and his students watch him through a webcam.

Master Vinh Bao is famous for creating a musical notation specific to folk music.

“This notation system can help foreigners easily understand traditional music,” he points out.

His students register to learn different instruments including the nhi (two-stringed fiddle), tranh (16-stringed zither), kim or nguyet (moon-shaped lute), guitar, and violin.

“Teaching and learning as an amateur is not like other genres. It requires no systematic learning or textbooks. Both teachers and learners depend mainly on inspiration,” he says.

One of Prof Vinh  Bao’s students built a website for him at http://www.Vinhbaotheonly 1.net.

Learning the computer

The story behind his learning to use the computer at such an advanced age is an interesting one. “Three years ago, my daughter bought a computer. An idea flashed in my mind. I thought I must learn to use the computer for transmitting my knowledge,” he recalls.

But it was not easy for him to learn because it was hard to find a teacher. “My family asked five people to teach me but four of them refused upon meeting me,” Bao says.

“Perhaps, they thought that I was too old to learn.

“I finally found a teacher – a person young enough to be my grandchild.

“Thanks to this young teacher, I made my first acquaintance with the CPU, mouse, email, website, and ADSL.”

However, this arrangement only lasted 15 days because of certain reasons.

“Subsequently, I had many amateur teachers, all children from my neighbourhood. But they were ready to teach me all the ‘computer techniques’ they knew.”

Bao took notes carefully while his proficiency in both English and French came in very useful. Before long, he was an expert in using a computer.

Talent artist

Prof. Vinh Bao began playing folk music instruments at the age of five. By the time he was 10, he could himself make some of them. Because of his clear understanding of music and the nature of wood, he managed to turn the ancient 16-chord zither into the current 21-chord instrument, enhancing its melody.

Among Viet Nam’s amateur musicians, Vinh Bao holds some kind of record for having the most number of teachers: he had more than 200 from whom he absorbed their specialities.

In his case, too many cooks did not spoil the broth; they merely added more strings to his bow. — VNS
http://vietnamnews.vnagency.com.vn/showarticle.php?num=01MUS170307

Dan Tranh – Vinh Bao was formed in 2004 by a group of students of Professor Vinh Bao. Dan Tranh – Vinh Bao’s mission is to preserve, develop and promote Vietnamese Traditional Music, especially Tradition of the South (Nhac Tai Tu Nam Bo), for people who love traditional music, and also building a bridge between Professor Vinh Bao’s students in many different states in US.

To fulfill its purpose, Dan Tranh – Vinh Bao participates in activites like:

* introducing and performing traditional music to schools and universities in US
* broadcasting traditional music shows on the TV and Radio Stations in US (wherever it’s possible)
* opening classes for dan tranh with the method and music lessons of Professor Vinh Bao
* posting valuable articles about famous artists, famous events about Tradition of the South (Nhac Tai Tu Nam Bo)
* distributing free traditional music sheets for music lovers
* posting clip of educational music lessons that were taught and explained by Professor Vinh Bao

Website in English and Vietnamese

http://vinhbao.theonly1.net/

TRAN QUANG HAI (1944 – )
Tran Quang Hai was born on May 13, 1944 in the country of Vietnam. He is a talented and renowned musician who comes from a family of five generations of musicians. He studied at the Natoinal Conservatory of Music in Saigon before moving in 1961 to France, where he studied the theory and practice of Oriental music with his father Professor Dr. Tran Van Khe, at the Center of Studies for Oriental Music in Paris. For several years, Tran Quang Hai also attended seminars on ethnomusicology at the School of High Studies for Social Sciences, and received Master of Arts and Ph.D. degrees. Since 1966, he has given over 3,000 concerts in 70 countries, and has taken part in approximately one hundred and thirty international traditional music festivals, as well as in radio and television broadcasts in Europe, America, Asia, Africa and Australia. He has been working for the National Center for Scientific Research in France since 1968, and is now attached to the Department of Ethnomusicology of the Musee de l’Homme. Also, from 1988 to 1995 he was a Lecturer on Southeast Asian music at the University of Paris X-Nanterre. He has been a guest lecturer of over one hundred Universities in the world.

Apart from his artistic activities, he is also interested in musical research. He has improved the technique of spoon playing and of the Jew’s harp. In 1970, he found by himself the key to the technique of overtone singing and has become the world famous expert of this peculiar split-tone singing khoomei well known in Tuva and Mongolia. During 1990 and 1991, he won four awards at the International Scientific Film Festivals in Estonia, France and Canada for his film “Le Chant des Harmoniques” (The Song of Harmonics) directed by Hugo Zemp. He is the co-author, actor and music composer of this film. He has written numerous articles on Vietnamese ans Asian music (New Grove Dictionary, Encyclopedia Universalis), and has also recorded 15 LPs 8 CDs, 4 video films, and 4 DVD. He composed more than four hundred pop songs, and musical pieces for 16 stringes zither dan tranh, monochord dan dôc huyên, Jew’s harp and overtone singing.

As a distinguished figure in his musical field, Tran Quang Hai has garnered more than 20 prizes and international awards. He has received a Gold Medal for music from the Asian Cultural Academy, and honorary doctorates from the International University Foundation and the Albert Einstein International Academy. He works with his wife, Bach Yen, who is a great Vietnamese pop and folk singer. Additionally, he was nominated President of the Jury of the Khoomei Throat Singing Festival in Kyzyl (Tuva) in 1995. He obtained the Cristal Medal of the National Center for Scientific Research in France in 1996, the Medal of Honor of the Limeil Brevannes city in France in 1998, and the Special Prize of the Jew’s Harp World Festival in Molln (Austria) in 1998.. In addition, he was the Honorary President of the Festival d’Auch “Eclats des Voix” in France in 1999, and of the Voice Music Festival of Perouges “Au Fil de la Voix” in France in 2000. His biography has been published in 30 Who’s Who reference books since 1979. . In 2002, he was decerned the title Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur in France.

He participated in the Jew’s Harp Festival in Molln (in 1998 and 2000), in Rauland – Norway (in 2002), in Amsterdam -the Netherlands . He is the founding member of the International Jew’s Harp Society . In 2005, he was elected as member of the Executive Board of the ICTM (Internatioanl Council for Traditional Music).

To date, Dr. Tran Quang Hai is the only Vietnamese to have taken part as a performer or composer in such great historical events as Australia’s Bicentenary celebration in 1988, the Bicenterary of the French Revolution in Paris in 1989, the 700th Anniversary of the Discovery of America in 1992, 600 Years of Seoul-Korea in 1994, the Julilee of the King of Thailand in 1996, 1,000 Years of Trondheim in Norway in 1997, the 100th Anniversary of the Phonogramm Archiv of Berlin in Germany in 2000, and the Centenary of Independance of Norway in 2005.
Site in 3 languages (English/French/Viet)
http://tranquanghai.com
https://tranquanghai1944.com


QUYNH HANH
Quynh Hanh, musicienne vietnamienne, doctorante en musicologie de l’université de Paris IV – Sorbonne, Paris, professeur de la Musique Traditionnelle Vietnamienne au Conservatoire du Viet nam. Médaille d’Or de la Musique Vietnamienne, membre de la SFE (Société Française d’Ethnomusicologie) de Paris, membre de l’ICTM (International Council for Traditional Music), est une artiste accomplie. Elle joue des instruments suivants : cithare à 16 cordes dàn tranh, monocorde dàn bâu, bambouphone dàn trung . Elle a fondé son école de musique traditionnelle vietnamienne à Paris . Site en Français seulement
http://ethnomusicvn.com/

PHUONG OANH
Figure de proue des mouvements de retour aux sources (Du Ca, Hoa Sim …), après son retour de la tournée en Europe, Phuong Oanh fonda L’Ecole de Musique Traditionnelle Vietnamienne Phuong Ca en 1970 à Saigon.

Elle était à l’époque déjà, l’un des rares professeurs de musique traditionnelle au Conservatoire National Supérieur de Saigon (1964-1975).
Spécialiste de la musique dite de Hué, Phuong Oanh a collaboré avec les principaux organismes culturels de l’époque : radio, télévision.

C’est avec les compositeurs Pham Duy, Nguyen Duc Quang, que Phuong Oanh a introduit la musique dite populaire dans les écoles, les universités. Recréé en Europe en 1976, par ses méthodes de travail, ses idées, Phuong Ca Dân Ca Quoc Nhac a rencontré un vif succès auprès des jeunes universitaires.

L’école est présente actuellement dans 8 pays, collaborant avec divers organismes : association, conservatoire, école de musique, université…

En 1988, Phuong Oanh reçut la Médaille d’or de 1’Académie Culturelle de 1’Asie pour ses travaux sur la musique Vietnamienne. En 1994, elle reçoit la médaille du mérite pour ses travaux pour la musique traditionnelle pour les jeunes donc publication au journal officiel du Congrès Américain.

En 35 ans l’ensemble instrumental de l’école sous la direction de Phuong Oanh s’est produite aux quatre coins du monde lors des plus grandes manifestations culturelles de la communauté aux quatre coins du monde : VATICAN, le Musée de Boston, Centre-Afrique, Nouvelle-Orléans …

Phuong Ca Dan Ca Quoc Nhac est le seul organisme non gouvernemental à présenter des candidats aux différents examens d’Etat en France.

Ecole de Musique Traditionnelle Vietnamienne dirigée par Phuong Oanh, professeur de cithare à 16 cordes dàn tranh.
“Phuong Ca Dan Ca Quoc Nhac” depuis 1969 – “Mot Truyen Thong Dang Duoc Tiep Noi”
Siège Social 28 ter rue des Mallets 95150 Taverny FRANCE – permanence lundi et jeudi
Siège d’exploitation : 53 rue Nationale Paris 13ème – permanence mardi et samedi
Tél: 33 (0)1 39 95 28 53 Fax: 33 (0)1 34 18 11 15 Email: info@phuongca.org Websites http://www.phuongca.org/, www.dan-tranh.fr
Site en français seulement

PHAM THUY HOAN
Tieng Hat Que Huong was founded in 1981 by Pham Thuy Hoan, a professor from the Vietnamese National Conservatory in Saigon. Starting from primary school Trieu Thi Trinh Dist. 10 in Saigon, Tieng Hat Que Huong’s mission is to preserve, develop and promote Vietnamese Traditional Music for people who love traditional music and also building a bridge between the old and the new artists.

Prof.Tran Van Khe and Hai Phuong To fulfill its purpose, Tieng Hat Que Huong participates in activites like:

* performing traditional songs, dances and music
* broadcasting traditional music shows on the TV and Radio Stations of Vietnam
* introducing folk songs and traditional musical instruments to schools and universities
* opening classes for dan tranh (the Vietnamese 16-stringed zither), dan bau (the monochord), dan nguyet (the moon-shaped lute), dan nhi (the 2-stringed fiddle), sao truc (the bamboo flute), folk song-learning classes every sunday morning at the City Labor Cultural Palace (55B Nguyen Thi Minh Khai, HCMC).
Site in 2 languages (English / Viet)

http://www.tienghatquehuong.com

KHAC CHI & NGOC BICH

The Khac Chi – Sounds of Vietnam features two of Vietnam’s premiere musicians, performing exquisite music on rare and unique instruments native to Vietnam. These virtuoso artists offer an intriguing glimpse into the rich musical tradition of Vietnam and its 4000-year history.

Famous for their musical skills innovation throughout Vietnam, the Khac Chi takes you on an adventure in sound. Extremely versatile, their concerts may include a combination of styles or feature any one style of Vietnamese traditional music, Vietnamese folk music or contemporary music to world music. They are as equally comfortable performing solo chamber concerts, as they are on folk festival stages, or as guest soloists for symphony orchestras.

Their rare talents and superb musicianship have won them numerous awards for excellence, as well as many invitations for international appearances.
3 languages (English / French/ Viet)
http://www.khacchi.com/

DUC THANH & NGUYET LAN
Pham Duc Thanh is a world-renowned musician known for his masterful ability on the Vietnamese one-stringed instrument (Dan Bau). He was born in 1958 in Ninh Binh , Vietnam . His talent was fully apparent from his youth: he was adept at the Chèo drumming style at age 4, he learned the mandolin at age 5, and he had begun playing Dan Bau (monochord) and Dan Nhi (2-string fiddle) at the age of 5. In 1974, Duc-Thanh left Hanoi to join the largest Cheo opera troupe in Vietnam and officially became a professional Dan Bau performer.

At the end of 1978 he was the only Dan Bau musician of the Cheo opera stage to attend the national Dan Bau competition of Vietnam in Hanoi ; soon after, he went to Saigon to study further the music of central and southern Vietnam . In October of 1983, he graduated with top honors from the Center for Musical Research of Vietnam. It was here that he became recognized as one of the rising musicians on Dan Bau in traditional as well as modern music.

He and his family moved to Canada in 1996. Today, he is an adored performer in Montreal . Beyond the traditional music of Vietnam , he has used the Dan Bau to integrate seamlessly with the sounds and rhythms of various ethnic sounds from around the world, following in the words of the poet Van Tien Le:

One string with all words light and heavy
Half a gourd containing a world of sound

website in 3 languages (English / French / Viet)
http://www.phamducthanh.com/site/index.html

NGUYEN THUYET PHONG
Nguyet thuyêt Phong is a famous Vietnamese musician, ethnomusicologist, living in the Unites States . You can read his biography and his activities on his website in English .
http://www.phong-nguyen.com/

LE TUAN HUNG & DANG KIM HIEN
Le Tuan Hung is a composer, performer and musicologist, specialising in Vietnamese music, cross-cultural music and experimental music. He is a multi-instrumentalist with a strong background in Vietnamese traditional music and Western classical music. He has performed widely in Asia, Australia, Europe, America and Oceania. His compositions have been created for a wide range of instruments, ensembles and media. His compositions and performances have been released by Move Records, NMA, ABC Music and Australian Sound Heritage Association. He is also the author of various publications on Vietnamese performing arts and is regarded as an expert in Vietnamese musicology. Apart from being trained as a traditional musician in the Vietnamese tradition, he also had a Bachelor of Music from the University of Melbourne and a PhD in Music from Monash University.

Dang Kim Hien is a composer, performer and educator. She is a vocalist and multi-instrumentalist, specialising in Vietnamese strings and percussion. She holds many national awards from Vietnam, including a National Gold Medal for Excellence in Vietnamese Zither Performance and a National Award for Traditional Vocal Performance. She taught at the Department of Traditional Music of the Conservatory of Music in Saigon (Vietnam) between 1980 and 1994. Since migrating to Australia in late 1994, she has been active in performing Vietnamese music and creating cross-cultural music. She has collaborated with Australian composers and performers in creating various cross-cultural works. She has performed extensively to present her original works on international platforms. Her compositions and performances have been released on Move Records.

Site in 2 languages (English / Viet)

http://home.vicnet.net.au/~aaf/aboutus.htm

Châu Nguyên, Mai Nguyên, Luu Hông


Professor Chau Nguyen studied music at the National conservatory of Music in Saigon, where he studied traditional musical instrument, harmony, and

Professor: Chau Nguyen
orchestration. Upon graduation in 1967 he was selected by the Board of Directors of the National Conservatory of Music to teach Vietnamese traditional music.

While he was teaching at the National conservatory of Music, professor Chau Nguyen also participated in musical and performing arts festivals in the country

and was a member of delegations representing Vietnam in other countries. In addition to performing and teaching, professor Chau Nguyen also specializes in composing, scoring, arranging music for group and producing different forms of Vietnamese performing arts, including the new form of choral orchestra in traditional music.

 

Professor Mai Nguyen is one of the founders and directors of the Lac Hong Performing Arts Group. Mrs. Mai Nguyen has an impressive musical background. She graduated in 1960 from the National Conservatory of Music in Saigon, where she specialized in the 16-string and pedagogy of music. She taught at the National Conservatory of Music in Saigon, the School of Theater Performing Arts and Gia Long High School until she escaped from Vietnam in 1977.
Professor: Mai Nguyen

Mrs. Nguyen continued her teaching career after relocating to Houston. She founded the Hoa Sim Group which participated in many festivals in the Vietnamese community and was involved with Voice of Freedom Radio. After moving to Orange County, Mrs. Nguyen continued to teach and formed a new Hoa Sim Group which later became the Lac Hong Performing Arts Group.

 

Dance Master Luu Hong is from a family of dancing traditions. In his childhood, he learned tap dance and together with his brothers and sisters, established a family dance group and performed at dancing clubs in Vietnam. This dance group traveled far and wide and performed at theaters from Saigon to Hanoi with famous singers, actors, and actresses.

In 1944, King Bao Dai, the last king of the Nguyen Dynasty, invited Dance Master Luu Hong and his family dance group to perform at the Imperial Court. After 1955, Dance Master Luu Hong and his dance group performed many shows all over South Vietnam. In 1964, Master Luu Hong and Dance Master Luu Binh established the Moulin Rouge Dance Group which later became the Luu Binh Hong Dance Group. This dance group represented Vietnam

to participate in the Dance Festival in Singapore among other Asian dance groups. In 1967, Dance Master Luu Hong was one of the founders of the Maxim Dance Group, a famous group well admired by public in Saigon. At that time, Master Luu Hong was designated to lead the Vietnamese dance group to perform at international festivals in Hong Kong, Japan, France, Morocco, England, South Africa, etc. In 1975, Master Luu Hong left Vietnam and settled in Japan, and later in USA. Since then, Master Luu Hong has participated in many musical shows overseas, trained young generations of dancers, and has been a choreographer for many shows for video tapes. Master Luu Hong has given much of his time and talent in training and guiding the Lam Ty Ni and Long Hoa dance groups.

At present Dance Master Luu Hong is re-establishing the Maxim Dance Group and cooperating with the Lac Hong Performing Arts Group to propagate the traditional cultural quintessence of Vietnamese music and dance to the young generation and to preserve and promote Vietnamese arts and culture in the USA.

http://www.doanlachong.com/LacHong/professors.htm

 

Vu Hong Thinh

Vu Hong Thinh is an ethnomusicologist. Vu Hong Thinh began to study music at the age of ten and has since devoted his life to music and dan tranh. He graduated with distinction from the National Conservatory of Music in Hanoi, Vietnam, where he remained as a music professor for many years. He has performed in many countries, for major Vietnamese Music Concerts and Fund Raising efforts. Besides dan tranh, Thinh also performs on a variety of other traditional instruments such as the monochord (bau), the 36-string hammered dulcimer (dan tam thap luc), the bamboo xylophone (dan t’rung), the k’longput, and traditional drum (trong). He has been featured in live televised concerts and broadcast recordings. Most recently he recorded and released his own CD “Nguyet Cam” as “The Art of Moon-Shaped Lute.” As a well-known expert in traditional Vietnamese music, he teaches dan tranh and other Vietnamese instruments throughout Northern California. He enjoys the opportunity to collaborate with other artists, such as Nguyen Dance Company, focused on sharing Vietnamese heritage with the community.

Below are some of his published research works:

* Special Research on the Moon-Shaped Lute
* The Gong Ensembles of the Xtieng Ethnic Group
* The Scales and Modes Issues of Different Ethnic Groups in South Vietnam
* The Ceremony Music & “Amateur Music” of South Vietnam
* Document Film: The Precious Gem of the Jungle

http://www.dannydancers.com/Biographies/BioVuHongThinh.htm

Other musicians are mentioned here. Their bio will be found soon and will be surely put here.

Kim Uyen – Toronto, Canada
Hai Yen Nguyen – Houston, TX, USA
Vo Van Anh – San Francisco, USA

Viêt Hai , Seattle, USA

The listing must be longer . Anyone who knows other Vietnamese musicians or researchers can send me their websites, emails and bios. Thank you in advance

Tran Quang Hai

Tiểu sử TRẦN QUANG HẢI


 

Chan-dung-TQH

 

 

Trần Quang Hải, sinh ngày 13 tháng 5, 1944 tại làng Linh Đông Xã , tỉnh Gia Định, miền Nam nước Việt Nam. Con trai trưởng của GS TS Trần Văn Khê (sinh ngày 24 tháng 7, 1921) và bà Nguyễn Thị Sương, cựu giáo sư Anh văn trường nữ trung học Gia Long (sinh ngày 19 tháng 9, 1921).

Trần Quang Hải kết hôn cùng nữ ca sĩ Bạch Yến ngày 17 tháng 6, 1978 tại Paris (Pháp). Bạch Yến nổi tiếng với bài « Đêm Đông » vào năm 1957, và chuyên về nhạc ngoại quốc Tây phương lúc đầu của sự nghiệp cầm ca . Sau khi thành hôn với Trần Quang Hải , Bạch Yến chuyển sang dân ca và cùng phổ biến nhạc dân tộc với chồng khắp thế giới .

Trần Quang Hải xuất thân từ một gia đình nhạc sĩ cổ truyền từ nhiều đời và anh là nhạc sĩ đời thứ năm . Ngoài ra anh là dân tộc nhạc học gia (ethnomusicologist – ethnomusicologue) chuyên về nhạc Việt, Á châu và hát đồng song thanh từ năm 1968, thuyết trình viên , nhạc sĩ sáng tác, chuyên gia về sư phạm âm nhạc, và thành viên của Trung tâm quốc gia nghiên cứu khoa học Pháp (CNRS – Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

 

Vài dòng về khuôn mặt Trần Quang Hải. Anh đã theo gót cha anh , GS Trần Văn Khê trên đường nghiên cứu dân tộc nhạc học. Anh đã tạo một hướng đi riêng trong địa hạt trình diễn về nhạc cổ truyền Việt Nam, nhạc tùy hứng, nhạc đương đại cũng như phương pháp nghiên cứu thể nghiệm qua hát đồng song thanh .

 

Gia đình nhạc sĩ cổ truyền

  1. Trần Quang Thọ (1830-1890), ông sơ của tôi là quan án sát, theo Phan Thanh Giản sang Pháp để thương thuyết nhưng thất bại , treo ấn từ quan , vào Nam , cư ngụ tại làng Vĩnh Kim, tỉnh Mỹ Tho. Rất giỏi về nhã nhạc Huế .
  2. Trần Quang Diệm (1853-1925), ông cố của tôi là người đàn tỳ bà rất hay , được gởi ra thành nội Huế để học nhạc cung đình và chuyên về đàn tỳ bà . Ông đã sáng chế ra cách viết bài bản cho đàn tỳ bà , nhưng tiếc thay là tất cả tài liệu đó bị thất lạc vì chiến tranh .
  3. Trần Quang Triều (1897-1931), ông nội của tôi là người đàn kìm rất giỏi, biệt hiệu Bảy Triều trong giới cải lương, đã đặt ra cách lên dây TỐ LAN cho đàn kìm để đàn những bài buồn ai oán. Hiện nay chỉ còn một số rất ít nhạc sĩ cổ nhạc biết đàn dây này (như nhạc sư Nguyễn Vĩnh Bảo , GS Trần Văn Khê)
  4. Trần Văn Khê (1921 – ), ba của tôi là người đã đưa nhạc cổ truyền Việt Nam lên hàng quốc tế và làm rạng danh nhạc Việt trên thế giới ở địa hạt trình diễn cũng như nghiên cứu . Con trai trưởng trong gia đình có ba người con (ba tôi GS Trần Văn Khê, chú ba tôi là Quái kiệt Trần Văn Trạch, cô tư tôi là Trần Ngọc Sương từng nổi tiếng là ca sĩ tân nhạc vào đầu thập niên 50) , ông đã hăng hái trong phong trào nhạc mới lúc trẻ (cùng thời với nhạc sĩ Lưu Hữu Phước, Phạm Duy) và quay về nhạc cổ khi soạn luận án tiến sĩ tại Pháp . Từng là giáo sư nhạc Đông phưong tại trường đại học Sorbonne (Paris, Pháp), giám đốc nghiên cứu của Trung tâm quốc gia nghiên cứu khoa học (Paris , Pháp), sáng lập viên Trung tâm nghiên cứu nhạc Đông phương ở Paris, và từng giữ chức phó chủ tịch Hội đồng quốc tế âm nhạc của UNESCO . Hưu trí từ năm 1987, ông vẫn tiếp tục nghiên cứu và đóng góp một vai trò lớn cho hai hồ sơ Nhạc cung đình Huế (được danh hiệu kiệt tác văn hóa phi vật thể UNESCO năm 2003) và Nhạc Cồng chiêng Tây Nguyên (kiệt tác văn hóa phi vật thể UNESCO năm 2005). Ông định cư ở Việt Nam sau 55 năm sống ở Pháp, và là cố vấn cho hồ sơ Ca Trù để đệ trình lên UNESCO cho năm 2007 và cho hồ sơ Đờn ca tài tử nam bộ cho năm 2011 dành cho kiệt tác văn hóa phi vật thể. Ngày 24 tháng 6 năm 2015 , ông từ trần tại quận Bình Thạnh, TP HCM, Việt Nam . .
  5. Trần Quang Hải (1944 – ) , cựu học sinh trường trung học Pétrus Ký, sau khi tốt nghiệp âm nhạc viện Saigon với bộ môn vĩ cầm (học với cố GS Đỗ Thế Phiệt), đi sang Pháp năm 1961 và học nhạc học tại trường đại học Sorbonne và dân tộc nhạc học ở trường cao đẳng khoa học xã hội (Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales). Tôi bắt đầu làm việc cho trung tâm quốc gia nghiên cứu khoa học (CNRS – Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) với ê-kíp nghiên cứu tại Viện dân tộc nhạc học của Viện bảo tàng Con người (Département d’ ethnomusicologie du Musée de l’Homme) từ 1968 cho tới 2009 thì về hưu). Trình diễn trên 3,500 buổi tại 70 quốc gia, tham gia 130 đại hội liên hoan quốc tế nhạc truyền thống, giảng dạy tại hơn 120 trường đại học, sáng tác nhạc hơn 400 bản nhạc cho đàn tranh, đàn môi, muỗng , hát đồng song thanh, nhạc tùy hứng, đương đại . Đã thực hiện 23 dĩa nhạc truyền thống Việt Nam, viết ba quyển sách, làm 4 DVD, 4 phim và hội viên của trên 20 hội nghiên cứu thế giới .Con đường nghiên cứu của tôi nhắm về sự giao lưu các loại nhạc cổ truyền tạo thành loại nhạc thế giới (world music), pha trộn nhạc tùy hứng , jazz, đương đại với nhiều loại nhạc khí và kỹ thuật giọng hát để tạo thành một loại nhạc hoàn toàn mới lạ .

 

SỰ NGHIỆP

  1. 1955-1961 trường quốc gia âm nhạc Saigon, tốt nghiệp vĩ cầm (lớp GS Đỗ Thế Phiệt)
  2. 1954-1961 trường trung học Pétrus Ký, Saigon.
  3. 1963-1970 Trung tâm nghiên cứu nhạc Đông phương (CEMO – Centre d’Etudes de Musique Orientale – Center of Studies for Oriental Music, Paris) , học các truyền thống nhạc Ba Tư (Iran), Ấn độ (Inde), Trung Quốc (Chine), Nhật Bổn (Japon), Nam Dương (Indonesie), Đông Nam Á (Asie du Sud-Est), Việt Nam (Vietnam)
  4. 1963 trường Ecole du Louvre, Paris
  5. 1965 certificate of proficiency in English (chứng chỉ Anh văn) , University of Cambridge, Anh quốc
  6. 1965 certificat de littérature française (chứng chỉ văn chương Pháp), Université de Sorbonne, Paris.
  7. 1967 cao học dân tộc nhạc học trường cao đẳng khoa học xã hội, Paris
  8. 1969 chứng chỉ âm thanh học (certificat d’acoustique musicale) , Paris
  9. 1970 văn bằng cao đẳng nhạc Việt trung tâm nghiên cứu nhạc đông phương , Paris
  10. 1973 tiến sĩ dân tộc nhạc học trường cao đẳng khoa học xà hội, Paris
  11. 1989 văn bằng quốc gia giáo sư nhạc truyền thống , Paris.

 

Từ năm 1965 tới 1966 theo học lớp nhạc điện thanh (musique électro-acoustique) với GS Pierre Schaeffer, người sáng lập loại nhạc điện tử ở Pháp .

 

Từ năm 1968 tới 2009, tôi làm việc tại Viện dân tộc nhạc học của Viện Bảo Tàng Con Người (Département d’Ethnomusicologie du Musée de l’Homme) ở Paris (Pháp) .

 

Từ năm 1968 tới 1987, tôi làm việc ở Viện dân tộc nhạc học của Viện bảo tàng nghệ thuật và truyền thống dân gian (Département d’Ethnomusicologie du Musée des Arts et Traditions Populaires) ở Paris (Pháp)

 

Nghiên cứu sư của Trung tâm quốc gia nghiên cứu khoa học (CNRS) ở Paris từ năm 1968. Từng là thành viên của nhiều ê-kíp nghiên cứu (RCP 178 – Recherche coopérative sur programme từ 1968 tới 1973 ; ER 65 – Equipe de recherche từ 1974 tới 1981 ; Laboratoire Associé từ 1974 tới 1987 ; UPR 165 – Unité Propre de Recherche từ 1982 tới 1985 ; UMR 9957 – Unité Mixte de Recherche từ 1986 tới 1997 ; UMR 8574 – Unité Mixte de Recherche từ 1997 tới 2004 ; UMR 7173 – Unité Mixte de Recherche từ 2005 trở đi)

 

Từ 1970 tới 1975 : giáo sư đàn tranh của Trung tâm nghiên cứu nhạc Đông phương , Paris

 

Trong suốt thời gian 55năm hành nghề nhạc sĩ chuyên nghiệp (1962 -2017) tôi đã trình diễn trên 3.500 buổi cho khán giả Tây phương , và trên 1.500 buổi diễn cho học trò trên thế giới do các cơ quan chính thức của Na Uy (Rikskonsertene), Bỉ (Jeunesses Musicales de Belgique), Thụy Sĩ (Jeunesses Musicales Suisses), Pháp (Jeunesses Musicales de France, Association départementale pour diffusion et initiation musicale – ADDIM).

Từ 1971 tôi đã làm 15 dĩa 30cm / 33 vòng và 8 CD về nhạc cổ truyền Việt Nam , đặc biệt là về đàn tranh. Nhiều sáng tác đã đưọc thu vào dĩa và được đăng trong các quyển tự điển Who’s Who in Music (từ năm 1987) , Who’s Who in the World (từ năm 1981 ), và Who’s Who in France (từ năm 1997).

 

 

Về sáng tác nhạc, tôi có viết 12 ca khúc nhi đồng với sự cộng tác của nhà văn Duyên Anh năm 1984. Tôi đã sáng tác trên 400 nhạc phẩm đủ loại với ca khúc viết tiếng Việt, Pháp, Anh và nhạc cho đàn tranh, đàn bầu, muỗng, đàn môi và hát đồng song thanh . Ngoài ra còn viết nhạc cho phim « Long Vân Khánh Hội »của Lê Lâm vào năm 1980, phim « Le Chant des Harmoniques » (Bài ca bồi âm) vào năm 1989, và cho phim « La Rencontre du Coq et du Dragon » (Cuộc hội ngộ giữa Gà và Rồng) vào năm 1998 .

 

Với tư cách nhà nghiên cứu dân tộc nhạc học, tôi đã viết nhiều bài cho các tập san nghiên cứu nhạc học như « The World of Music » (UNESCO), « Journal of Asian Music Society (Cornell University, Hoa Kỳ), « Yearbook of the International Council for Traditional Music –ICTM, Hoa Kỳ), « Cahiers de Musiques Traditionnelles » (Thụy Sĩ ), « Koukin Journal » (Tokyo, Nhật Bản).

 

Tôi có viết một bài về nhạc Cao miên cho New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ấn bản lần thứ 1 (1980) (20 quyển, London, Anh quốc), định nghĩa vài nhạc cụ Việt Nam cho New Grove Dictionary of Music, ấn bản lần thứ nhì (2001) (29 quyển, London, Anh quốc), định nghĩa cho trên 200 từ nhạc cụ của Việt Nam, và Đông Nam Á cho New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments, ấn bản lần thứ nhứt (1984) (3 quyển, London, Anh quốc)

 

Tôi viết lịch sử nhạc Việt Nam, Lào, Cao Miên và Thái Lan cho quyển tự điển Algemeine Muziekencyclopedia (1082-1984, Hòa Lan), và nhiều bài cho tự điển Encyclopaedia Universalis (1984, 1986, 1988 , 1990, 1991, Paris)

 

Tôi đã làm 4 DVD về giọng và hát đồng song thanh : « Le Chant diphonique » với CRDP (trung tâm địa phương tài liệu sư phạm và Hàn lâm viên La Réunion, 2004), « Le chant des Harmoniques » (CNRS – Trung tâm quốc gia nghiên cứu khoa học, 2005), « La Voix » với nhà xuất bản Lugdivine (2006, Lyon, Pháp), và « The Song of Harmonics » với CNRS, Paris, 2006.

 

Ngoài ra nhà nghiên cứu dân tộc nhạc học cũng là đạo diễn Pháp Patrick Kersalé đã thực hiện hai chương trình video « Mystères des Voix du Monde » (Sự huyền bí của các gịong thế giới) (2012), và « Le Chant des Harmoniques » (Bài ca bồi âm) (2013) với tôi là nhân vật chính của hai video này .

 

Giảng dạy ở các trường đại học , viện bảo tàng và trung tâm nghiên cứu trên thế giới

 

Tôi đã từng được mời dạy và thuyết trình tại nhiều trường đại học, trung tâm nghiên cứu và viện bảo tàng ở khắp năm châu :

 

Mỹ : University of Hawaii (1977), University of Berkeley (1977), University of Maryland (1980), Columbia University (1983), Museum of Modern Art (MOMA ở New York, 1984), University of California, San Diego (UCSD, 1990), Cornell University (1994), Thomas University (Minneapolis, 1996), Foundation of the Voice, Philadelphia (1997), Wisconsin University, Madison (1998), George Mason University (2000).

CANADA : Université de Montréal (1991), York University, Toronto (1994), University of Toronto (1994), Royal Museum of Ontario, Toronto (1994),.Saint John’s University, Saint John’s, Canada (2011)

BRAZIL : Âm nhạc viện, Rio de Janeiro (1983), University of Rio de Janeiro (1998, 2006), University of Recife (1998), Faculty of Music , Rio de Janeiro (2006)

Nam Phi : University of Cape Town (1984, 1997), Stellenbosch University, Cape Town (1984), University of Fort Hare, Fort Hare (2011)

Úc Châu : Monash University, Melbourne (1986), Sydney University, Sydney (1986), Western Australian University, Perth (1986), College of Advanced Education, Melbourne (1988), University of Canberra (1995)

Đại Hàn : National Seoul University (1981), National Institute of Performing Arts, Seoul (1994), Academy of Korean Studies, Seoul (2006)

Nhật Bản : Royal Academy of Music (1981), University of Hiroshima, Hiroshima (1999), Osaka University of Fine Arts , Osaka (2000).

Đài Loan : University of Taiwan, Taipei (2000), National Center of the Arts , Taipei (2000, 2002)

Thái Lan : University of Mahasarakham (1986), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (2012)

Việt Nam : Viện âm nhạc Hà nội, Hà nội (2002, 2006, 2017 ), Trung tâm văn hóa Pháp, Hà Nội (2006), Âm nhạc viện thành phố HCM (2006), Học Viện Âm nhạc quốc gia, Hà nội (2017)

Lebanon : CLAC (Centre de lecture et d’animation culturelle – trung tâm văn hóa), ở các tỉnh Barja, Mansoura, Kfar Debyan, Amioun (2002)

Đức : Volkekunde Museum, Berlin (1985), Musik Hochschule , Detmold (1994), Institute of Psychotherapy, Heidelberg (1997), Musik Hochschule, Stuttgart (2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006,2013 ), Musik Hochschule, Hanover (2003), Aachen Universitet, Aachen (2003), Erfurt University (2004)

Belarus : Music Academy of Belarus, Minsk (1996)

Bỉ : Institute of Musicology , Louvain (1976), Royal Museum of Central Africa, Tervuren (1976), Royal Instrumental Museum, Brussels (1980, 2001), University of Anwerpen (1981), Institute of Living Voice , Anverpen (2001), Royal Museum of Mariemont, Mariemont (2002), Conservatory of Music, Mons (2006)

Đan Mạch : Musikhistoriska Museum, Copenhagen (1972), Institute of Danish Folk Archive, Copenhagen (1972), Odin Teatret (Laboratorium of NordicTheatrical Researches), Holstebro (1998), Laboratory of theatrical experimental researches Cantabile 2, Wordingborg (2000).

Tây Ban Nha : Summer University, Madrid (1990)

Pháp : Paris : Université de Paris X-Nanterre (1985-92), Université de Paris VIII –Saint Denis (1991, 1993), Université de Paris IV-Sorbonne (1989), Centre d’Etudes de Musique Orientale (1970-1975), Ecole Nationale des Langues Orientales Vivantes – ENLOV (1991, 2006), Laboratoire d’Acoustique Musicale (1971, 1974), IUFM, Université de Cergy (1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2001)

Nice : Université de Nice (1990), Musée des Arts Asiatiques (1999, 2000, 2003)

Tours : Université de Tours (1975)

Montpellier : Université de Montpellier 3 (1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006)

Toulouse : Université de Toulouse (1985, 1991, 1995, 1997)

Marseille : Conservatoire National de Musique (1987)

Strasbourg : Conservatoire National Régional – CNR (1995, 1997, 1998)

Mulhouse : Ecole Doctorale (2000), Université de la Haute Alsace (2005)

Rennes : Conservatoire de Musique (1980), Université de Rennes (1999, 2000, 2001, 2004), IFMI de Rennes (2005)

Poitiers : Université de Poitiers (2000)

Bordeaux : Université de Bordeaux 2 Victor Segalen (2001)

Lille : Université de Lille (2004)

Vương quốc Anh : Horniman Museum , London (1972), University of Durham (1985), University of London (1991), City University, London (1992), SOAS – School of Oriental and African Studies, London (1998), University of Reading, Reading (2004, 2005) Queen’s University, Belfast (1984),

Ái nhĩ lan : University of Limerick, Limerick (2004, 2005, 2017), University of Cork, Cork (2005),

Ý đại lợi – Italy: Institute of Musicology, Bologna (1979), University of Bologna (2000, 2003), Foundazione San Georgio Cini , Istituto Interculturale di Studi Musicali Comparati (1979, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006), Santa Cecilia Nazionale Academia, Roma (1994), University of Roma (1994), Institute of Musicology and Linguistics, Venezia (1996), Teatro La Fenice , Venezia ( 1995, 1996, 1997), Academy of Music, Sienna (1999), Institute of Musictherapy, Padova (2001, 2016).

Lituania : Music Academy of Lituana, , Vilnius (1997)

Na Uy – Norway : Institute of Musicology, Trondheim (1976, 1980, 1981), University of Oslo (1979), Music Academy Grieg, Bergen (2004), Conversatory of Music, Oslo (2005, 2006)

Hà Lan – Holland : Jaap Kunst Centrum, Amsterdam (1974), Gemeente Museum, Den Haag (1980), Tropen Museum, Amsterdam (1992, 1998), University of Leiden , Leiden (2000), University of Groningen , Groningen (1998)

Ba Lan – Poland : Summer University, Warsaw (1997), University of Wroclaw (2013, 2016)

Nga – Russia : Âm nhạc viện Chaikowsky , Moscova (1993), Institute of World Music Research , Moscova (1993, 2012), International Centre of Khoomei, Kyzyl, Tuva (1995)

Slovakia : Music Academy, Nitra (1997)

Thụy Điển – Sweden : Lund University , Lund (1976), Stockholm University, Stockholm (1976), Music Museet , Stockholm (1981), Royal Music Academy, Stockholm (1985)

Thụy Sĩ – Switzerland : Ethnographical Museum, Basel (1969), Music Academy, Basel (1993, 1995).

Yugoslavia : Music Academy, Sarajevo (1991)

Slovenia : Music Academy of the University in Ljubljana (2006, 2011)

Croatia: Institute of Ethnology and Folklore Research in Zagreb (2006)

 

ĐẠI HỘI LIÊN HOAN VÀ HỘI NGHỊ QUỐC TẾ

 

Trong vai trò nhạc sĩ  , tôi đã trình diễn tại hơn 130 đại hội liên hoan nhạc truyền thống sau đây:

1970 :

*Festival International du Son (Nhạc hội quốc tế về âm thanh), Paris, Pháp-France

*Festival of Arts – Chiraz / Persepolis (Nhạc hội về nghệ thuật), Chiraz, Ba Tư-Iran

 

1971 :

*Cinq Journées de Rencontre avec le Groupe de Recherches Musicales (5 ngày gặp gỡ với Nhóm Nghiên cứu nhạc), Paris, Pháp – France

Semaine culturelle indochinoise (Tuần lễ văn hóa Đông Dương), Geneva, Thụy Sĩ (Switzerland)

*Oriental Music Festival (Đại hội liên hoan nhạc đông phương), Berlin, Đức – Germany .

*Festival de Musique d’Ajaccio (Đại hội liên hoan âm nhạc tại Ajaccio), đảo Corsica, Pháp

*15 Jours de Musique Traditionnelle avec le Folkclub Le Bourdon (15 ngày nhạc truyền thống với hội dân nhạc Le Bourdon), Geneva, Thụy sĩ – Switzerland .

 

1972 :

*Pampelune Music Festival  (nhạc hội tại Pampluna), Pampluna, Tây ban nha – Spain

*La Geolette d’Or , Knokke le Zoute , Bỉ – Belgium

*Festival of Traditional Music in Vesdun (Nhạc hội nhạc cổ truyền), Vesdun, Pháp-France

*SIGMA 8 : Festival de musique contemporaine (đại hội nhạc truyền thống), Bordeaux, Pháp-France.

 

1973 :

*Festival de musique de Royan (nhạc hội tỉnh Royan), Royan, Pháp – France

*Festival international de Musique Traditionnelle (nhạc hội quốc tế nhạc truyền thống), Le   Havre, Pháp – France

*Festival international de Cultures et Jeunesses (Nhạc hội quốc tế về văn hóa và tuổi trẻ), Presles, Pháp – France .

 

1974 :

*Festival de Musiques Traditionnelles (Nhạc hội nhạc cổ truyền), Bezon, Pháp-France

*Festival international de Musique Folk (Nhạc hội quốc tế nhạc dân gian), Colombes, Pháp-France .

*Festival de Musique du Haut Var (Nhạc hội vùng Haut Var), Pháp – France

*Musicultura (Văn hóa âm nhạc), Breukelen, Hà Lan – the Netherlands

 

1975 :

*Trois jours de musique folk (3 ngày dân nhạc), Conflans Sainte Honorine, Pháp – France

*5ème Festival de Musique contemporaine (Nhạc hội nhạc đương đại lần thứ 5), Bourges, Pháp – France .

*La Geolette d’Or, Knokke le Zoute, Bỉ – Belgium

*Festival de Musique de Tradition orale (Nhạc hội truyền thống truyền miệng), Châlon sur Saône, Pháp-France

*Festival international de musique (nhạc hội quốc tế), Olivet , Pháp – France

 

1976 :

*Le Printemps des Peuples Présents (Mùa Xuân của các dân tộc hiện tại), Paris, Pháp-France

*Festival de Musique d’Eté (Nhạc hội hè), Chailles, Pháp-France

*Festival du Marais (Nhạc hội khu Marais), Paris, Pháp-France

*Journées Musicales Internationales (Ngày nhạc quốc tế), Vernou, Pháp – France

*Un mois d’Arts Asiatiques (Một tháng nghệ thuật á châu), Laon, Pháp-France

*Oriental Music Festival (Nhạc hội nhạc Đông phương), Durham, Anh quốc – United Kingdom

*Festival de Musique de l’Asie du Sud-Est (Nhạc hội Đông Nam Á), Laon, Pháp- France

 

1977 :

*Journées Musicales Internationales (Ngày Nhạc quốc tế), Vernou, Pháp-France

*World Music Festival (Nhạc hội nhạc thế giới), Berkeley, Hoa Kỳ -USA

*World Conference of the IFMC (Hội nghị thế giới IFMC), Honolulu, Hawaii, Mỹ – USA

 

 

1978 :

*Journées Musicales Internationales (Ngày Nhạc quốc tế), Vernou, Pháp-France

*Festival de Musique Traditionnelle, Lugano, Thụy sĩ- Switzerland

*Fête de la Saint Jean (Lễ thánh Jean), Dieppe, Pháp-France

 

1979 :

*Oriental Music Festival (Nhạc hội nhạc Đông phương), Durham, Anh quốc-United Kingdom

*Festival International de Musique Contemporaine (Nhạc hội quốc tế nhạc đương đại), Clichy, Pháp-France

*World Conference of the IFMC (Hội nghị thế giới IFMC), Oslo, Na Uy – Norway

 

1980 :

*Festival d’Automne (Nhạc hội mùa thu), Paris, Pháp-France

*Festival International de Musique traditionnelle (Nhạc hội quốc tế nhạc truyền thống), Sarajevo, Nam tư-Yugoslavia

 

1981 :

*Asian Music Festival (Nhạc hội Á châu), Seoul, Đại Hàn- Republic of Korea

*World Conference of the IFMC (Hội nghị thế giới IFMC) , Seoul, Đại Hàn, Korea

 

1982 :

*Chamber Music Festival (Nhạc hội nhạc thính phòng), Kuhmo, Pháp-France

*Polyphonix : Poésie et Musique (Nhạc hội về Thơ và Nhạc), Paris, Pháp-France

 

1983 :

*First World Music Festival (Nhạc hội nhạc thế giới lần thứ nhất), Rio de Janeiro, Ba Tây – Brazil

*World Conference of the ICTM (Hội nghị thế giới ICTM), New York, Mỹ – USA

 

1984 :

*Polyphonix : Poetry and Music (Nhạc hội về Thơ và Nhạc), New York, Hoa Kỳ -USA

*Folk Music Festival (Nhạc hội dân nhạc) , Kaustinen, Phần Lan-Finland

*New Music Festival (Đại hội nhạc mới), Vitaasarii, Phần Lan-Finland

*Chamber Music Festival (Đại hội nhạc thính phòng), Kuhmo, Phần Lan-Finland

*Festival of World Musical Cultures (Đại hội văn hóa nhạc thế giới), Cape Town, Nam Phi- South Africa

 

1985 :

*First World Festival of Traditional Music (Đại hội thế giới nhạc cổ truyền lần thứ nhất), Belfast, Bắc Ái nhĩ lan – Northern Ireland, United Kingdom

*Festival international de musique(đại hội quốc tế âm nhạc), Langeais, Pháp-France

*Festival estival (đại hội mùa hè), Paris, Pháp-France

 

1986 :

*Festival de Musique des Trois Continents (Đại hội nhạc ba lục địa), Nice, Pháp-France

*Festival de Musique Traditionnelle – Nord/Sud (Đại hội nhạc truyền thống -Bắc/Nam), Paris, Pháp-France

*Festival de Musiques des Immigrants (Đại hội nhạc di dân), Paris, Pháp-France

 

1987 :

*Polyphonix : Poésie et Musique (Đại hội Thơ và Nhạc), Paris, Pháp-France

*Festival de Musique Folk (Đại hội dân nhạc), Ris Orangis, Pháp-France

 

1988 :

*Premières Rencontres d’Expressions Vocales (Cuộc gặp gỡ đầu tiên về Giọng hát), Abbaye de Fontevraud, Pháp-France

*World Music Festival (đại hội nhạc thế giới) , Melbourne, Úc châu – Australia

*People’s Music Festival (đại hội nhạc dân chúng), Milano, Ý-Italy

*Festival de Musique asiatique (đại hội nhạc Á châu), Estampes, Pháp-France

 

1989 :

*Bicentenaire de la Révolution Française (Đại hội nhạc kỷ niệm 200 năm cách mạng Pháp), Paris , Pháp-France

*Festival international de Saint Herblain (đại hội quốc tế âm nhạc tỉnh Saint Herblain), Saint Herblain, Pháp-France

*World Conference of the ICTM (Hội nghị thế giới ICTM), Schladming, Áo quốc-Austria

 

1990 :

*Music Festival « Bloomed Sounds, Floating Song »( Đại hội âm nhạc “âm thanh nở, ca khúc trôi”), Osaka, Nhật Bản-Japan

*First Forum of Pacific and Asian Arts (Đại hội nhạc Á châu và Thái bình dương lần thứ nhất), Kobe, Nhật Bản-Japan .

*Asian Music Festival (Nhạc hội Á châu), Tamba, Nhật Bản-Japan.

*Festival de Musique Traditionnelle (Nhạc hội nhạc cổ truyền), Arzila, Maroc – Morocco

*Berlin Music Festival (Nhạc hội thành phố Berlin), Berlin, Đức – Germany

*Vox Populi (Nhạc hội về Giọng), Bruxelles, Bỉ-Belgium

 

1991 :

*700 ans de Suisse (Nhạc hội 700 năm thành lập xứ Thụy Sĩ), Lausanne, Thụy Sĩ-Switzerland

*Festival de Musique de Saint Denis (Nhạc hội tỉnh Saint Denis), Saint Denis, Pháp-France

*String Music Festival (Nhạc hội đàn dây), Berlin, Đức-Germany

*Voice Festival (Đại hội Giọng), Rotterdam, Hà Lan – the Netherlands

 

1992 :

*4ème Rencontre de Chants Polyphoniques (Gặp gỡ lần thứ 4 Hát Đa âm), Calvi, Corse, Pháp

*Festival autour de la Voix (Đại hội quanh về Giọng), Argenteuil, Pháp-France

*Festival sur l’esprit des Voix (Đại hội về Giọng), Périgueux, Pháp-France

*Festival de Musique de Montréal, (đại nhạc hội kỷ niệm 350 thành lập xứ Canada), Montréal, Canada .

 

1993 :

*Festival de Musique Folk (Đại hội nhạc dân gian), Ris Orangis, Pháp-France

*Voice Festival (Đại hội về Giọng), Volterra, Ý – Italy

*World Conference of the ICTM (Hội nghị thế giới ICTM), Berlin, Đức – Germany

 

1994 :

*Festival de Musique Traditionnelle (Đại hội nhạc cổ truyền), Azrilah, Maroc-Morocco

*Festival de Musiques du Monde (Đại hội nhạc thế giới), Nantes, Pháp-France

*First Festival and International Conference of the Pacific / Asian Society for Ethnomusicology (Đại nhạc hội và hội nghị quốc tế lần thứ nhất ), Seoul, Hàn quốc-Korea

 

1995:

*Giving Voice : A Geography of the Voice (Đại hội về Giọng), Cardiff, Wales, Vương quốc Anh – United Kingdom

*2nd International Festival of Throat Singing Khoomei (Đại hội quốc tế lần thứ 2 về Hát đồng song thanh), Kyzyl, Tuva, Nga – Russia

*World Conference of the ICTM (Hội nghị thế giới ICTM), Canberra, Úc chậu – Australia

 

1996:

*Voice Festival (Đại hội về giọng), Grosetto, Ý-Italy

*Giving Voice: A Geography of the Voice (Đại hội về Giọng), Cardiff, Wales, Vương quốc Anh – United Kingdom

*4th World Festival of Choral Music (Đại hội thế giới lần thứ 4 về nhạc hợp xướng), Sydney, Úc châu – Australia

*1st World Meeting of Vietnamese Music (Gặp gỡ thế giới lần thứ nhất về nhạc Việt), Minneapolis, Mỹ – USA

 

1997:

*International Festival of Music (Đại nhạc hội quốc tế), Cape Town, Nam Phi – South Africa

*Festival de Musique Folk (Đại hội nhạc dân gian), Ris Orangis, Pháp – France

*Giving Voice : An Archeology of the Voice (Đại hội về Giọng), Aberyswith, Wales, Vương quốc Anh – United Kingdom

*Festival Régional de Musiques Traditionnelles (Đại hội địa phương nhạc cổ truyền), Montpellier, Pháp – France

*World Conference of the ICTM (Hội nghị quốc tế ICTM), Nitra, Slovakia

 

1998 :                                                                                                   

*International Festival of Stringed Instruments (Đại hội quốc tế đàn dây), Amsterdam, Hà lan – the Netherlands

*International Festival of Mediterranean Music (Đại hội quốc tế nhạc Địa Trung Hải), Genova, Ý – Italy

*Asian Music Festival in Europe (Đại hội nhạc Á châu ở Âu châu), London, Anh quốc – Great Britain

*Printemps pour la culture vietnamienne (Mùa Xuân cho văn hóa Việt), Paris, Pháp-France

*Festival de la Voix (Đại hội về Giọng), Auch, Pháp-France

*3rd World Jew’s Harp Festival (Đại hội thế giới lần thứ 3 về Đàn Môi), Molln, Áo quốc-Austria

*Bela Bartok Festival of Contemporary Music (Đại hội Bela Bartok nhạc đương đại), Szombathely, Hungari – Hungary

*Asian Music Festival (Đại hội nhạc Á châu), Firenze , Ý-Italy

*International Voice Festival (Đại hội quốc tế về Giọng), Rio de Janeiro, Braxin- Brazil

 

1999 :

*Festival d’Auch (Đại hội về giọng thành phố Auch), Auch , Pháp – France

*Festival international de Musique de Saint Chartier (Đại hội quốc tế nhạc cổ truyền), Saint Chartier, Pháp-France

*Giving Voice : A Divinity of the Voice (Đại hội về Giọng), Aberyswith, Wales, Vương quốc Anh – United Kingdom

*Bela Bartok Festival of Contemporary Music (Đại hội Bela Bartok nhạc đương đại), Szombathely, Hungari – Hungary

*World Conference of the ICTM (Hội nghị thế giới ICTM), Hiroshima, Nhật Bản – Japan

 

2000:

*Festival Printemps musical de Pérouges (Nhạc hội mùa xuân tỉnh Pérouges), Pérouges, Pháp-France

*Fête de la Musique (Ngày lễ âm nhạc), Paris, Pháp-France

*International Jew’s harp Festival (Đại hội quốc tế Đàn môi), Moll, Áo quốc-Austria

*Festival of Dances and Folk Music (Đại hội múa và nhạc dân gian), Rudolstadt, Đức – Germany

*Festival de Musiques des 5 continents (Đại hội nhạc 5 châu), Mauléon, Pháp-France

*International Festival of Extreme Voices (Đại hội quốc tế về Giọng), Genova, Ý-Italy

*International Festival of Qin music (Đại hội quốc tế về nhạc đàn tranh), Amsterdam, Hà Lan – the Netherlands

*Festival de Voix d’Hommes (Đại hội Giọng Nam), Bretagne, Pháp – France

*Festival of Traditional Music (Đại hội nhạc cổ truyền), Đài Bắc, Đài loan – Taiwan

 

2001 :

*Colloque de la Voix chantée (Hội nghị về Giọng ), Lyon, Pháp – France

*Festival de Musique Traditionnelle (Đại hội nhạc cổ truyền), Denain, Pháp-France

*City London Music Festival (Đại nhạc hội thành phố London), London, Anh quốc –England

*Fête de la Musique (Lễ âm nhạc), Paris, Pháp – France

*Festival « Performato » (Đại nhạc hội Performato), Rio de Janeiro, Braxin – Brazil

*International Festival of Choral Music (Đại hội quốc tế nhạc hợp xướng), Singapore

*Festival “1000 Facettes de la Voix” (Đại hội 1000 bộ mặt của Giọng), Village du Lac, Pháp-France

*World Conference of the ICTM (Hội nghị thế giới ICTM), Rio de Janeiro, Braxin – Brazil

 

2002 :

*International Voice Festival (Đại hội quốc tế về Giọng), Genova , Ý –Italy

*Fête de la Musique (Lễ âm nhạc), Beirut, Liban – Lebanon

*International Congress of Yoga (Hội nghị quốc tế về Yoga), Vogüe, Pháp – France

*6th World Symposium of Choral Music (Đại hội thế giới lần thứ 6 về nhạc hợp xướng), Minneapolis, Mỹ – USA

*4th World Jew’s Harp Festival (Đại hội thế giới lần thứ 4 về Đàn Môi), Raudal, Na Uy- Norway

*International Congress of Polyphony (Hội nghị quốc tế nhạc đa âm), Tbilissi, Georgia

 

2003

*International Music Festival of Telemark (Đại hội quốc tế âm nhạc ở Telemark), Bo, Na Uy – Norway

*Festival de culture vietnamienne (Đại hội văn hóa Việt), Lausanne, Thụy Sĩ – Switzerland

*International Congress of Psychotherapy (Hội nghị quốc tế tâm lý điều trị học), Hanover, Đức – Germany

*International Festival “Voice of the World” (Đại hội quốc tế “Giọng thế giới”, Bologna, Ý- Italy

 

2004:

*World Conference of the ICTM(Hội nghị thế giới ICTM), Fuzhou, Trung quốc – China

*International Festival “Making New Waves” (Đại hội quốc tế nhac đương đại), Budapest, Hungari – Hungary

*International Congress of Musical Acoustics (Hội nghị quốc âm thanh nhạc học), Nara, Nhật Bản – Japan

*International Congress of Acoustics (Hội nghị quốc tế âm thanh học), Kyoto, Nhật Bản – Japan

*International Congress of Yoga (Hội nghị quốc tế về Yoga), Vogüe, Pháp – France

*International Festival of Mediterranean Music (Đại hội quốc tế nhạc Địa Trung Hải), Genova, Ý – Italy

*3ème Festival “Le Rêve de l’Aborigène » (Đại hội nhạc đàn môi, didjeridu và hát đồng song thanh lần thứ 3), Poitiers, Pháp – France

*International Congress of Shamanism (Đại hội quốc tế về đồng bóng), Trường đại học Donau, Krems, Áo quốc – Austria

*Manifestations scientifiques et musicales dans le cadre “Lille, Ville européenne culturelle *2004 (Sinh hoạt khoa học và âm nhạc trong khung cảnh « Lille, thành phố Âu châu văn hóa 2004), Lille, Pháp – France

*International Seminar on Voice (Hội nghị quốc về Giọng), Reading, University of Reading,, Anh quốc – England.

*International Symposium of Sung and Spoken Voice (Hội nghị quốc tế về giọng hát và giọng nói, Stuttgart, Đức – Germany.

 

2005:

*International Festival of Avant Garde Music “Making New Waves”  (Đại hội quốc tế ậm nhạc đương đại), Budapest, Hungari – Pháp

*International Festival of Choral Music (Đại hội quốc tế về hát hợp xướng), Erfurt, Đức – Germany.

*International Festival of Choral Music (Đại hội quốc tế về hát hợp xướng), Arnheim, Hà Lan – the Netherlands

*International Festival of Mediterranean Music (Nhạc hội quốc tế nhạc Địa Trung Hải), Genova, Ý-Italy

*Sunplash Festival (Nhạc hội nhạc Reggae), Ý – Italy

*World Conference of the ICTM (Hội nghị thế giới ICTM), Sheffield, Anh quốc.

*MELA Festival (Đại nhạc hội MELA về nhạc thế giới), Oslo, Na Uy – Norway.

*1st World Festival of Marranzanu (Đại hội thế giới về Đàn môi lần thứ nhất), Cantania, Sicily, Ý – Italy

*International Symposium of Voice (Hội nghị quốc tế về Giọng), Stuttgart, Đức – Germany

*“30 ans d’existence de l’Université en Haute Alsace” (Lễ kỷ niệm 30 năm thành lập trường đại học Haute Alsace), Mulhouse, Pháp – France

*International Festival of Traditonal Music (Đại hội quốc tế nhạc truyền thống), Limerick, Ái nhĩ lan – Ireland.

 

2006:

*Tết in Seattle (Đại hội âm nhạc Tết tại Seattle), Seattle, Mỹ – USA

*2ème Rencontre sur la parole chantée (Cuộc gặp gỡ thứ nhì về lời hát), Rio de Janeiro, Braxin- Brazil .

*Festival « La Semaine du Son » (Đại hội tuần lễ âm thanh), Châlon sur Saône, Pháp – France

*International Seminar on Ca Trù (hội thảo quốc tế về Ca Trù ), Hà Nội, Việt Nam

*Festival international des Musiques Sacrées (Đại hội quốc tế nhạc tôn giáo), Fribourg, Thụy Sĩ – Switzerland.

*5th International Jew’s Harp Festival (Đại hội quốc tế Đàn môi lần thứ 5), Amsterdam, Hà Lan – the Netherlands

*MELA Festival (Đại hội quốc tế nhạc thế giới), Oslo, Na Uy – Norway

*International Meeting of the ICTM (Hội thảo quốc tế ICTM), Ljubliana, Slovenia

*International Congress of Applied Ethnomusicology (Hội nghị quốc tế về dân tộc nhạc học áp dụng ), Ljubljana, Slovenia.

*International Symposium of Voice (Hội nghị quốc tế về Giọng), Stuttgart, Đức – Germany

*International Meeting “Music as Memory” (Hội thảo quốc tế “Nhạc như là Trí Nhớ), Oslo, Na Uy – Norway.

*The Global Forum on Civilization and Peace (Hội thảo về văn minh và hòa bình), Seoul, Đại Hàn – Republic of Korea.

2007
*“Bilan du film ethnographique” (Đại hội liên hoan phim nghiên cứu), Paris, France (march)
*“Voice Festival / 9th session of the ILV/ CETC”, (đại hội liên hoan về giọng) Buenos Aires, Argentina (march)

*“Symposium on music therapy”, (hội thảo về âm nhạc điều trị học) Sao Paulo, Brazil (april)
*“Bergen International Music OI OI Festival”,  (Đại hội liên hoan quốc tế tại Bergen) Bergen, Norway (may-june)
*“Homage to Demetrio Stratos” (Lễ hội kỷ niệm ca sĩ Demetrio Stratos), Alberone di Cento, Italy (june)                                                                                                                            *“39th World conference of the ICTM” (hội nghị quốc tế ICTM), Vienna, Austria (july)
*“PEVOC 7 – International Congress on Voice”, (PEVOC , hội nghị quốc tế về Giọng) Groningen, the Netherlands (august)
*“International Doromb Jew’s Harp Festival” (đại hội liên hoan quốc tế về đàn môi), Hungary (september)

2008                                                                                                                                                      *“A Week of Sound Festival, Lyon”, (Đại hội liên hoan một tuần về âm thanh) France (january)                                                                                                                                            *“Unesco Congress of World Heritage”(Hội nghị UNESCO về di sản thế giới), Canberra, Australia  (February                                                                                                                          *“Giving Voice” (Đại hội liên hoan về Giọng), Aberystwith, New Wales (march)           *“Bergen International Music OI OI Festival”( đại hội liên hoan quốc tế về nhạc tại Bergen) Bergen, Norway (may/june)                                                                                       *“Homage to Demetrio Stratos” (đại hội nhạc kỷ niệm ca sĩ Demetrio Stratos), Alberone di Cento, Italy (june)                                                                                                                                 *”A Voix Haute” Festival, (đại hội liên hoan về giọng hát) Bagnères de Bigorre, France (august)                                                                                                                                                        *“MELA music festival” (Đại hội liên hoan quốc tế nhạc dân tộc MELA) , Oslo, Norway (august)                                                                                                                                          *“International Voice Festival” (Đại hội liên hoan giọng hát quốc tế), Dresden, Germany (september)

2009                                                                                                                                                         *“Voice Festival” (đại hội liên hoan về Giọng), Switzerland (may)                              *“Homage to Demetrio Stratos” (đại hội nhạc kỷ niệm ca sĩ Demetrio Stratos), Alberone di Cento, Italy (june)                                                                                                                              *“40th World conference of the ICTM” (hội nghị quốc tế ICTM), Durban, South Africa (july)                                                                                                                                           *“International Congress of Voice Teachers”(hội nghị quốc tế các giáo sư dạy giọng), Paris, France (july)                                                                                                                       *“MELA Music Festival” (đại hội liên hoan nhạc dân tộc quốc tế MELA), Oslo, Norway (august)

2010                                                                                                                                          *“Homage to Demetrio Stratos” (đại hội liên hoan nhạc kỷ niệm ca sĩ Demetrio Stratos), Alberone di Cento, Italy (june)                                                                                                   *“International of Sound” (đại hội liên hoan âm thanh quốc tế), Saint John’s, Canada (july)                                                                                                                                                          *“ICTM 2 study groups meeting”j hội thảo ICTM về nhạc sắc tộc và dân tộc nhạc học ứng dụng) , Hanoi , Vietnam (july)                                                                                            *“Vietnamese Guiness Record Ceremony” (Lễ trao giải kỷ lục Việt Nam), Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam, (december)

2011                                                                                                                                              *“International Symposium on Don Ca tai tu Nam bo”(hội thảo quốc tế về đờn ca tài tử nam bộ), Ho Chi Minh city (January)                                                                        *“International colloquial about 400 years of the birth of Phu Yen city” (hội thảo quốc tế về 400 năm thành phố Phú Yên được sinh ra ), Phu Yên, Vietnam (april)                              *“Le Vietnam à Lorient”, (Việt Nam tại tỉnh Lorient , Pháp) Lorient, France (may)  *“World Jew’s Harp Festival” (Đại hội liên hoan đàn môi thế giới )in Yakutsk, Yakutia (june)                                                                                                                                            *“Homage to Demetrio Stratos”( đại hội liên hoan nhạc kỷ niệm ca sĩ Demetrio Stratos), Alberone di Cento, Italy (june)                                                                                                 *“International Festival of Mediterranean Music” (đại hội liên hoan quốc tế nhạc địa trung hải), Genova, Italy (july)                                                                                                *“41stWorld Conference ICTM” (hội nghị quốc tế ICTM) in Saint John’s , Canada (july)                                                                                                                                                      *“World Symposium of Choral Music” (hội thảo thế giới nhạc hợp xướng), Puerto Madryn, Argentina (august)                                                                                                             *“Spring Festival of South African Music” (đại hội liên hoan mùa xuân nhạc Nam Phi), Fort Hare, South Africa (september)                                                                                          *“International Festival of Humour and Music” (đại hội liên hoan hài hước và nhạc) , Stavanger, Norway (september)                                                                                              *“Peace Festival” (đại hội liên hoan về hòa bình), Wroclaw, Poland (october)                         *“30th International Ethnographical Film Festival” (đại hội liên hoan phim ảnh nghiên cứu quốc tế), Paris, (november)                                                                                         *“International Conference of Arirang” (hội nghị quốc tế về bản nhạc dân ca Arirang), Seoul, Korea (december)

2012                                                                                                                                                      *Festival d’Auch (đại hội liên hoan về giọng tại tỉnh Auch), Auch, France (april)                                                                                                                                                     *Festival Music Night (đại hội liên hoan nhạc ban đêm), Munich, Germany (april)

2013                                                                                                                                                       *Festival de la Voix (đại hội liên hoan về giọng) Colombes, France (may)                              *42nd ICTM WORLD CONFERENCE (hội nghị quốc tế ICTM) , Shang Hai , China (july)                                                                                                                                              *Festival Les Nuits du Monde “Vietnam Style” (đại hội liên hoan Đêm thế giới), Geneva, Switzerland (November)                                                                                                                   *Exhibition VOICE – « Voices of the World » (triển lãm GIỌNG – Giọng của thế giới), City of Sciences, Paris, France (december 2013 – september 2014)                                                   *Congress “Biomedical Signal Processing & Control (Elsevier) devoted to the workshop MAVEBA (hội y khoa về Giọng), Florence, Italy (december)                                                    *World Marranzano Festival (đại hội liên hoan thế giới đàn môi) , Catania, Sicily, Italy (december)

2014                                                                                                                                                        *Festival “Pauses Musicales” (đại hội liên hoan giải lao âm nhạc), Toulouse, France (February)                                                                                                                        *“Promenade Vietnam” (Đi dạo Việt Nam), City of Music, Paris, France (march) *International Conference “Safeguarding & Promotion of Folk Songs in the Contemporary Society” (hội nghị quốc tế về bảo vệ và quảng bá dân ca trong xã hội đương đại), Vinh city, province of Nghệ An, Vietnam (may)                                           *Ancient Trance Festival – Jew’s harp world festival, (đaị hội liên đàn môi thế giới) Taucha, Germany (august)                                                                                                                   *10 Internationale Stuttgarter Stimmtage, (hội thảo quốc tề về goịng) Stuttgart, Germany (october)                                                                                                                                       *Opening ceremony of the World Vocal Clinic / Deutsche Stimmklinik (lễ khai mạc về giọng khía cạnh y khoa), Hamburg, Germany (october)                                                         *Festival « Il teatro vivo », (đại hội liên hoan nhà hát linh động)  Bergamo, Italy (november)

2015                                                                                                                                                *Omaggio a Demetrio Stratos (đại hội liên hoan nhạc kỷ niệm ca sĩ Demetrio Stratos), Alberone, Italy (june)                                                                                                                  *43rdICTM World Conference (hội nghị quốc tế ICTM) , Astana, Kazakhstan (july)                                                                                                                                                             *Festival of Hát Then Nùng Thái (đại hội liên hoan hát then nùng thái), Việt Bắc , Vietnam (september)                                                                                                               *Convegne, Concerti e master class dedicati al « canto sardo e canto armonico nel mondo » (hội thảo, khóa dạy hát đồng song thanh”, Sorso , Sardinia, Italy (october)

2016                                                                                                                                             *Festival of Chầu Văn (Vietnamese music of possession ) (đại hội liên hoan chầu văn), Nam Định, Vietnam (january)                                                                                                           *Voice Encounters : Voice Pedagogy, (Cuộc gặp gỡ về giọng – sư phạm giọng) Wroclaw, Poland (april)                                                                                                                                *International Meeting A GRAN VOCE (gặp gỡ quốc tế về giọng) , Vicenza , Italy (may)                                                                                                                                               *Omaggio a Demetrio Stratos 2016 (đại hội liên hoan nhạc kỷ niệm ca sĩ Demetrio Stratos), Alberone, Italy (june)                                                                                                *Ancient Trance Festival , (đại hội liên hoan nhạc dân tộc)Taucha, Germany (August)                                                                                                                                                               *12th international Voice Symposium « BRAIN & VOICE » (hội thảo quốc tế về gịong ), Salzburg , Austria (august)

2017                                                                                                                                                        *44th ICTM World Conference (hội nghị quốc tế ICTM), Limerick, Ireland (july) *Congress “Voci e Soni “Di Dentro e Di Fuori” (hội nghị về Giọng và Âm thanh), Padova, Italy (october)                                                                                                                                        *Congress La Voce Artistica (hội nghị về Giọng nghệ thuật) 2017 XI edìtion, Ravenna, Italy (october)

Tôi đã sáng tạo một số kỹ thuật mới cho muỗng được thấy ở Việt Nam vào cuối thập niên 40 (gần 70 năm).Ngoài ra tôi khám phá kỹ thuật hát đồng song thanh từ năm 1969 và hiện nay được xem như chuyên gia có được nhiều giới nghiên cứu về dân tộc nhạc học, âm thanh học, nhạc đương đại, y học biết tới khắp nơi trên thế giới .

 

Tôi đã thể nghiệm nhiều loại nhạc với tư cách nhạc sĩ. Tôi đã từng chơi nhạc Free Jazz với nhóm Alain Brunet Quartet), nhạc pop, nhạc điện thanh (electro- acoustical music) qua bài Về Nguồn (soạn chung với Nguyễn Văn Tường được trình bày lần đầu tiên năm 1975 tai Champigny sur Marne, Pháp), nhạc tùy hứng (hợp tác với Arlette Bon vũ sư đương đại năm 1972, với Muriel Jaer, vũ sư đương đại nhiều năm từ 1973 tới 1980, qua bài Shaman với Misha Lobko vào năm 1982, Paris).

Tôi đã cộng tác trình diễn trong các dĩa CD như với Philip Peris (tôi chơi đàn môi và hát đồng song thanh hòa với kèn thổ dân Úc didjeridu năm 1997), với các nhạc sĩ đàn môi qua hai CD về đàn môi năm 1999 và một CD đàn môi với John Wright, Leo Tadagawa và Svein Westad năm 2000. Dĩa VIETNAM / TRAN QUANG HAI & BACH YEN do hãng SM Studio sản xuất tại Paris năm 1983 đã đưọc giải thưỏng của Hàn Lâm Viện Charles Cros, Pháp vào năm 1983, và dĩa LES VOIX DU MONDE do hãng Le Chant Du Monde sản xuất năm 1996 tại Paris cũng được giải thưởng của Hàn Lâm Viện Charles Cros, Pháp vào năm 1996.

 

Hội Viên các hội nghiên cứu

 

  • Society for Ethnomusicology (Hội Dân tộc nhạc học), Hoa Kỳ, từ 1969
  • Asian Music Society (Hội Nhạc Á châu), Hoa Kỳ, từ 1978
  • ICTM (Hội đồng quốc tế nhạc truyền thống), Hoa Kỳ, từ 1976

(đưọc bầu làm thành viên của ủy ban chấp hành  – member of the Executive Board từ 2005)

  • Société Internationale de Musicologie (Hôi quốc tế nhạc học), Thụy Sĩ, từ 1977
  • International Association of Sound Archives (IASA) (Hội quốc tế âm thang viện), Úc châu từ 1978
  • Association of the Foundation of Voice (Hội về Giọng), Hoa Kỳ từ 1997
  • Société de Musicologie (Hội nhạc học), Pháp, từ 1980
  • Société Francaise d’Ethnomusicologie (Hội Dân tộc nhạc học Pháp) từ 1985 (sáng lập viên)
  • CIMCIM (Unesco) từ 1983
  • Séminaire Européen d’Ethnomusicologie (Hội Dân tộc nhạc học Âu châu), Thụy Sĩ , từ 1983.
  • Association Francaise d’Archives sonores (Hội âm thanh viện Pháp) từ 1979
  • Centre d’Etudes de Musique Orientale (Trung tâm nghiên cứu nhạc Đông phương), Paris, từ 1962 (giáo sư của trung tâm từ 1970 tới 1975)
  • Centre d’Etudes Vietnamiennes (Trung tâm nghiên cứu Việt học), Pháp ,từ 1987
  • Association Francaise de Recherche sur l’Asie du Sud-Est (Hội nghiên cứu Đông Nam Á Pháp), Pháp từ 1986.
  • Société des Auteurs , Compositeurs et Editeurs de la Musique (SACEM) , Pháp, từ 1980
  • International Center of Khoomei (Trung tâm quốc tế Hát đồng song thanh), Kyzyl, Tuva, Nga từ 1995.
  • International Jew’s Harp Society (Hội quốc tế Đàn Môi) , Áo quốc, từ 1998 (sáng lập viên)
  • Scientific Association of Vietnamese Professionals (Hội khoa học chuyên gia Việt Nam) (hội viên danh dự) , Canada từ 1992.
  • Vietnamese Institute for Musicology (Viện Âm nhạc Hà nội), Việt Nam từ 2004, (hội viên danh dự)
  • American Biographical Institute and Research Association (ABIRA) , Hoa kỳ, từ 1979 (hội viên vĩnh cữu, cố vấn quốc tế)
  • International Biographical Association (IBA), Anh quốc, từ 1979 (hội viên vĩnh cữu, cố vấn quốc tế)
  • Encyclopaedia Universalis Tự điển, Pháp, từ 1985 (cố vấn cho giải thưởng Diderot)
  • American Order of Excellency, Hoa Kỳ, từ năm 1998 (sáng lập viên)
  • World Wide Library, Hoa Kỳ (thành viên).
  • Vietnamese Public Library of Knowledge (ViPLOK) (founding member of the editorial board), Hoa Kỳ từ 2006.

 

NHỮNG QUYỂN SÁCH CÓ TIỂU SỬ TRẦN QUANG HẢI

 

Sau đây là những quyển tiểu sử Who’s Who và các quyển sách khác có đăng tiểu sử của tôi :

  • Dictionary of International Biography, ấn bản thứ 15, Anh quốc
  • Men of Achievement, ấn bản thứ 5, 6, và 7, Anh quốc
  • International Who’s Who in Music, từ ấn bản thứ 8 cho tới hiện nay (2017), Anh quốc
  • Who’s Who in Europe, ấn bản thứ 2 và 3, Anh quốc
  • Men and Women in Distinction, ấn bản thứ 1 và 2, Anh quốc
  • International Register of Profiles, ấn bản thứ 4 và 5 , Anh quốc .
  • International Who’s Who of Intellectuals, ấn bản thứ 2 và 3, Anh quốc
  • The First Five Hundred, ấn bản thứ nhất, Anh quốc
  • Who’s Who in the World, từ ấn bản thứ 5 tới nay (2017), Hoa Kỳ
  • 5,000 Personalities in the World, ấn bản thứ nhất, Hoa kỳ
  • International Directory of Distinguished Leadership, ấn bản thứ nhất, Hoa Kỳ
  • International Book of Honor, ấn bản thứ nhất, Hoa Kỳ
  • Who’s Who in Entertainment, ấn bản thứ 3, Anh quốc
  • Who’s who in France, từ ấn bản thứ 29 tới nay (2017), Pháp
  • Nouvelle Dictionnaire Européen, từ ấn bản thứ 5 tới ấn bản thứ 9, Bỉ
  • Who’s Who in International Art, ấn bản thứ nhất, Thụy Sĩ
  • Vẻ Vang Dân Việt – The Pride of the Vietnamese, quyển 1, ấn bản thứ 1 và 2, Hoa Kỳ
  • Fils et Filles du Viet Nam , ấn bản thứ nhất, Hoa Kỳ
  • Tuyển tập nghệ sĩ (Selection of Artists), quyển 1, Canada
  • Guide du Show Business, từ 1986 tới nay (2017), Pháp
  • The Europe 500 Leaders for the New Century, Barons Who’s Who, Hoa Kỳ
  • QUID, từ 2000 tới nay (2017) , Pháp
  • 500 Great Minds of the Early 21st Century, Bibliotheque World Wide, Hoa Kỳ
  • Officiel Planète,từ năm 2000 tới nay (2017), nhà xuất bản IRMA, Pháp

 

 

NHỮNG GIẢI THƯỞNG

 

  • 1983 : Grand Prix du Disque de l’Académie Charles Cros (Giải thưởng tối cao của Hàn Lâm viện dĩa hát Charles Cros) cho dĩa hát “Viet Nam / Tran Quang Hai & Bach Yen” do hãng SM Studio sản xuất tại Paris, Pháp
  • 1986 : Médaille d’Or (Huy chương vàng) của Hàn lâm viện văn hóa Á châu, Paris, Pháp
  • 1987 : D.MUS (Hon) (tiến sĩ danh dự) của International University Foundation, Hoa Kỳ.
  • 1988 : International Order of Merit của International Biographical Centre, Cambridge, Anh quốc.
  • 1989 : Ph.D.(HON) (Tiến sĩ danh dự) của Albert Einstein International Academy Foundation, Hoa Kỳ
  • 1990 : Grand Prix du Festival International du Film Anthropologique et Visuel (Giải thưởng tối cao của đại hội quốc tế phim nhân chủng và hình ảnh) cho phim “Le Chant des Harmoniques” (Tiếng hát bồi âm) do tôi là tác giả, diễn viên chánh và viết nhạc cho phim, Parnü, Estonia.
  • 1990 : Prix du Meilleur Film Ethnomusicologique (Giải thưỏng phim hay nhất về dân tộc nhạc học) cho phim “Le Chant des Harmoniques” (Tiếng hát bồi âm) do Hàn lâm viện khoa học cấp, Parnü, Estonia
  • 1990 : Prix Spécial de la Recherche (Giải thuởng đặc biệt về nghiên cứu) của Đại hội quốc tế điện ảnh khoa học dành cho phim “Le chant des harmoniques” (Tiếng hát bồi âm), Palaiseau, Pháp.
  • 1991 : Grand Prix Northern Telecom (Giải thưởng tối cao Northern Telecom) của Đại hội quốc tế Phim khoa học lần thứ nhì của Québec dành cho phim “Le chant des harmoniques” (Tiếng hát bồi âm), Montréal, Canada .
  • 1991 : Prix Van Laurens (Giải thưởng Van Laurens) của British Association of the Voice và Ferens Institute của London tặng cho bài tham luận của tôi mang tên là “Discovery of overtone singing” (Khám phá hát đồng song thanh), London, Anh quốc .
  • 1991 : Alfred Nobel Medal (Huy chương Alfred Nobel)của Albert Einstein Academy Foundation, Hoa Kỳ
  • 1991 : Grand Ambassador (Huy chương Đại sứ lớn) của American Biographical Institute, Hoa kỳ
  • 1991 : Men of the Year (Người của Năm 1991) do American Biographical Institute tặng, Hoa kỳ
  • 1991 : Men of the Year (Người của Năm 1991) do International Biographical Centre tặng, Cambridge, Anh quốc.
  • 1994 : Men of the Year (Người của Năm 1994) do American Biographical Institute tặng , Hoa kỳ
  • 1994 : Gold Record of Achievement (Kỷ lục vàng về thành đạt) do American Biographical Institute tặng, Hoa Kỳ
  • 1995 : Giải thưởng đặc biệt về hát đồng song thanh tại Đại hội liên hoan hát đồng song thanh, Kyzyl, Tuva, Nga
  • 1996 : Médaille de Cristal (Huy chương thủy tinh) do Trung tâm quốc gia nghiên cứu khoa học tặng cho 25 năm nghiên cứu hát đồng song thanh, Pháp
  • 1997 : Grand Prix du disque de l’Académie Charles Cros (Giải thưởng tối cao của Hàn lâm viện Charles Cros) cho dĩa hát “Voix du Monde » (Giọng Thế giới), Pháp.
  • 1997 : Diapason d’Or de l’Année 1997 (Dĩa vàng năm 1997) cho dĩa hát « Voix du Monde », Pháp
  • 1997 : CHOC de l’année 1997 (Ấn tượng mạnh nhất trong năm 1997) cho dĩa hát « Voix du Monde », Pháp
  • 1998 : Médaille d’Honneur (Huy chương danh dự dành cho công dân danh dự) của thành phố Limeil Brévannes (nơi tôi cư ngụ), Pháp.
  • 1998 : Giải thưởng đặc biệt của Đại hội thế giới về Đàn Môi, Molln, Áo quốc
  • 2002 : Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur (Hiệp sĩ Bắc đẩu bội tinh), huy chương tối cao của Pháp, Pháp .
  • 2009 : Huy chương lao động hạng đại kim (Médaille du Travail, catégorie Grand Or), bộ lao động Pháp.
  • 2015 : Bằng cấp danh dự của Viện Bảo tàng đàn môi, Yakutsk, xứ Yakutia
  • 2017 : Huy chương sáng lập viên hội dân tộc nhạc học Pháp, Paris, Pháp

 

SÁCH DO TRẦN QUANG HẢI VIẾT

 

  • Biên Khảo Nhạc Việt Nam , nhà xuất bản Bắc Đẩu, 362 trang , 1989, Paris, Pháp
  • Musiques du Monde (Nhạc thế giới) : với sự hợp tác của Michel Asselineau và Eugène Bérel, nhà xuất bản J-M Fuzeau, 360 trang, 3 CD, 1993, Courlay, Pháp
  • Musics of the World (Nhạc thế giới) : nhà xuất bản J-M Fuzeau, 360 trang, 3 CD, 1994, Courlay, Pháp . Bản dịch tiếng Đức được xuất bản năm 1996, bản dịch tiếng Tây Ban Nha xuất bản năm 1998.
  • Musiques et Danses Traditionnelles d’Europe (Nhạc và vũ truyền thống Âu châu) : với sự hợp tác của Michel Asselineau, Eugène Bérel và FAMDT, nhà xuất bản J-M Fuzeau, 380 trang, 2 CD, 1996, Courlay, Pháp .

 

DVD do TRẦN QUANG HẢI biên soạn

 

  • Le Chant Diphonique, (Hát đồng song thanh) 27 phút, với 2 bản (tiếng Pháp và tiếng Anh), nhà xuất bản CRDP của đảo Réunion, 2004. Đồng tác giả: Trần Quang Hải và Luc Souvet
  • Le Chant des Harmoniques (Bài hát bồi âm), 38 phút, bản tiếng Pháp, nhà xuất bản CNRS Audiovisuel, 2005, Meudon, Pháp . Đồng tác giả: Trần Quang Hải và Hugo Zemp
  • The Song of Harmonics, (Bài hát bồi âm) 38 phút , bản tiếng Anh, nhà xuất bản CNRS Audiovisuel, 2006, Meudon, Pháp. Đồng tác giả : Trần quang Hải và Hugo Zemp
  • Thèm’Axe 2 LA VOIX (Giọng), 110 phút, bản tiếng Pháp, nhà xuất bản Lugdivine, Lyon, 2006 . Tác giả : Patrick Kersalé với sự hợp tác của Trần Quang Hải .

 

NHỮNG BIẾN CỐ QUAN TRỌNG TRÊN THẾ GIỚI

 

Tôi là nhạc sĩ Việt Nam đầu tiên tham gia trình diễn tại những biến cố lịch sử quan trọng trên thế giới

  • 1988 : 200 năm thành lập xứ Úc
  • 1989 : 200 năm Cách mạng Pháp
  • 1991 : 700 năm thành lập xứ Thụy Sĩ
  • 1992 : 350 năm thành lập thành phố Montréal, Canada
  • 1992 : 500 năm khám phá Mỹ châu của Chritophe Colombus
  • 1994 : 600 năm thành lập thủ đô Seoul, Đại Hàn
  • 1996 : 50 năm vua Thái Lan trị vì
  • 2000 : 100 năm thành lập âm thanh viện Berlin, Đức
  • 2004 : Genova , thành phố văn hóa Âu châu, Ý
  • 2004 : Lille , thành phố văn hóa Âu châu, Pháp
  • 2005 : 100 năm xứ Na Uy được độc lập .

 

Tôi là nhạc sĩ Việt Nam tham gia nhiều nhất Ngày Lễ Âm nhạc do Pháp đề xướng từ lúc đầu tiên vào năm 1982, rồi năm 1984, 1985 , 1987, 1989 tại Paris, rồi năm 1991 tại đảo La Réunion, rồi năm 2000, 2001 tại Paris, năm 2002 tại Beirut (Lebanon)

 

Tôi là nhạc sĩ Việt Nam  duy nhất đàn nhạc phim của các nhà viết nhạc phim của Pháp như Vladimir Cosma, Philippe Sarde, Maurice Jarre, Gabriel Yared, Jean Claude Petit , và trình diễn những nhạc phẩm đương đại của các nhà soạn nhạc như Nguyễn Văn Tường, Bernard Parmegiani, Nicolas Frize, Yves Herwan Chotard.

 

Tôi là nhạc sĩ Việt Nam duy nhất đã trình diễn trên 3.500 buổi giới thiệu nhạc Việt tại 70 quốc gia từ năm 1966, 1.500 buổi cho học sinh các trường học ở Âu Châu, giảng dạy tại hơn 100 trường đại học trên thế giới, tham dự trên 130 đại hội liên hoan âm nhạc quốc tế và có trên 8.000 người theo học hát đồng song thanh .

 

Liên lạc : TRẦN QUANG HẢI

điện thoại di động : 06 50 25 73 67

email: tranquanghai@gmail.com

trang nhà : https://tranquanghai.com

https://tranquanghai1944.com

https://tranvankhe-tranquanghai.com

 

Địa chỉ: 12 Rue Gutenberg

94450 LIMEIL BREVANNES

FRANCE

vietnamese dan tranh music 5

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TRAN QUANG HAI ‘s BIOGRAPHY in English


 

TRAN QUANG HAI Bio

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TRAN QUANG HAI

Tran Quang Hai was born on 13 May 1944 in Vietnam. He is a talented and renowned musician. He comes from a family of five generations of musicians. He studied at the National Conservatory of Music in Saigon before coming to France in 1961 where he studied the theory and practice of Oriental music with his father, Prof.Dr. Trân Van Khê at the Center of Studies for Oriental Music in Paris.

For several years, he also attended seminars on ethnomusicology at the School of High Studies for Social Sciences (he got the MA and Ph.D degrees), and acoustics with Prof. Emile Leipp.

He plays 15 or so musical instruments from Vietnam, China, India, Iran, Indonesia and Europe.Since 1966, he has given over 3,500 concerts in 70 countries, and has taken part in 150 or so international traditional music festivals. He has taken part in radio and television broadcasts in Europe, America, Asia, Africa, and Australia. He worked for the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) in France from 1968 to 2009 (date of retirement). He was attached to the Department of Ethnomusicology of the Musée de l’Homme (Paris). He was a lecturer on South East Asian music at the University of Paris X – Nanterre (1988-1995)

Apart from his artistic activities, he is also interested in musical research. He has improved the technique of spoon playing and of the Jew’s harp. In 1970 he found the key to the technique of overtone singing. The film “Le Chant des Harmoniques ” (The Song of Harmonics) which he co-produced with Hugo Zemp, and in which he was the principal actor and composer of the film music,  won four awards at international scientific film festivals in Estonia (1990), France (1990), and Canada (1991). He is considered as the greatest specialist in overtone singing in the world. He has written numerous articles on Vietnamese and Asian music (New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments, Algemeine Muziekencyclopedie, Encyclopaedia Universalis). He has also recorded 15 LPs and 2 CDs (one of which obtained the Grand Prix de l’Academie de Disque Charles Cros in 1983). He has composed hundreds of popular songs. His musical experience is very varied : contemporary music, electro-acoustical music, improvisation, film music. He continues to preserve and develop traditional Vietnamese music (numerous new compositions for the 16 stringed zither dàn tranh ).

He has received a Gold Medal for music from the Asian Cultural Academy, and honorary doctorates from the International University Foundation (USA), and the Albert Einstein International Academy (USA). Trân Quang Hai works with his wife Bach Yên who is a Vietnamese great folk singer. He has obtained more than 20 prizes and international awards.He was nominated President of the Jury of the Khoomei Throat Singing Festival (Tuva, 1995) He obtained the Cristal Medal of the National Center for Scientific Research (France, 1996).He was also President of Honor of the Festival d’Auch: Eclats de Voix (1999) and the Festival de Perouges / Au Fil de la Voix (2000). He was member of the Jury of the Song Contest 2000 “A Song for Peace in the World” in Roma (2000). And in June 2002, he received the medal of Knight of the Legion of Honor from the French President Jacques Chirac . In 2009,he was the recipient of the Medal of Honor, category Great Gold for his 41 years as a public servant of France .

He is the only Vietnamese to have taken part as a performer or composer in such great historical events as the Australia’s Bicentenary celebrations (1988), the Bicentenary of the French Revolution in Paris (1989), the 700th Anniversary of the Birth of Switzerland (1991), the 350th Anniversary of the Founding of Montreal (1992), the 500th anniversary of the discovery of America (1992), the 600 Years of Seoul-Korea (1994), the Jubilee of the King of Thailand (1996), the 1,000 Years of Trondheim in Norway (1997), the 100 years of the creation of the Sound Archives in Berlin (2000), the 100 years of independance of Norway (2002) the 20 years of creation of Khomus museum in Yakutsk, Yakutia (2015), the Wroclaw European Cultural Town in Poland (2016)

Discography

  1. Vietnam: Tran Quang Hai & Bach Yen PLAYASOUND PS 33514,Paris 1979, col. Musiques de l’Asie Traditionnelle,vol.10.
  2. Cithare et chants populaires du Vietnam Tran Quang Hai & Bach Yen
  3. Music of Vietnam. LYRICHORD LLST 7337, New York, 1980.
  4. Vietnam/ Tran Quang Hai & Bach Yen. Studio SM 3311.97, Paris,1983.Grand Prix du Disque de l’Academie Charles Cros 1983.
  5. Vietnamese Dan Tranh Music Tran Quang Hai. LYRICHORD LLST 7375,New York, 1983.
  6. MUSAICA: chansons d’enfants des emigres. DEVA RIC 1-2,Paris,1984.

5 Compact Discs

“Reves et Realite- Tran Quang Hai & Bach Yen ” edited by Playasound PS 65020, Paris, 1988.

“Bach Yen – Souvenir “, edited by William Arthur, Los Angeles, 1994

“Cithare Vietnamienne – Tran Quang Hai”, edited by Playasound PS 65103,Paris, 1993.

“Landscape of the Highlands – Tran Quang Hai”, edited by Music of the World, Chapell Hill, USA, 1997.

“Les Guimbardes du Monde – Tran Quang Hai”, edited by Playasound, Paris,1997.

5 commercialized cassettes on pop and folk music of Vietnam

1 videocassette on Vietnamese Music (1984)

1 videocassette “Music of Vietnam ” produced by Ministry of Education in Perth (Australia) (1989)

4 DVDs

Le Chant diphonique”, CRDP, co author : tran quang hai & luc souvet, 27 minutes, Saint Denis, Ile de la Réunion, 2002.

« Le Chant des harmoniques », CNRS Audiovisuel, co author : tran quang hai & hugo zemp, 38 minutes, (French version) Paris, 2005

« The Song of Harmonics », CNRSS Audiovisuel, co author : tran quang hai & hugo zemp, 38 minutes, (English version), Paris, 2006

“La Voix”, Lugdivine editions, author: Patrick Kersalé, with the cooperation of Tran Quang Hai, 100 minutes, Lyon, 2006.

4 films on Tran Quang Hai

« Vietnam / Variations sur sa musique traditionnelle par Trân Quang Hai with Bach Yen », 46minutes, directed by Bùi Xuân Quang , Paris Vietnam Productions (publisher), 2009

“Mystères des Voix du Monde avec Tran Quang Hai”, directed by  Patrick Kersalé, 24’58 , Paris, 2012

« Le Chant des Harmoniques par Tran Quang Hai », 20’11, directed by Patrick Kersalé, at Festival 7th Art & Sciences, Noirmoutier, France, 2013,

« HAI : parcours d’un musicien vietnamien à Paris » (HAI : path of a Vietnamese musician in Paris), 52 minutes, directed by Pierre Ravach, Bruxelles in 2005, produced in  Paris in 2015

 

Participation to these CDs

“Voices of the World”, 3 CD, booklet in French/English (188pages), edited by Le Chant du Monde, collection CNRS/Musée de l’Homme, Paris, 1996. Grand Prix du Disque de l’Académie Charles Cros 1997, Le Diapason d’Or de l’Année1997, Le CHOC de l’Année 1997.

“Vietnam: Musics of the Montagnards”, 2 CD, booklet in French/English (124pages), edited by Le Chant du Monde, collection CNRS/Musée de l’Homme,Paris, 1997. Le Diapason d’Or, Le CHOC

“Phillip Peris – Didjeridu” , edited by Les Cinq Planètes, Paris, 1997.

“Klangfarben der Kulturen”, edited by Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Berlin, 1998.

“World Festival of Jew’s Harp in Molln”, 2CDs edited by Molln Jew’s Harp Ass., Austria, 1999.

Performer of more than 3,500 concerts in 70 countries around the world since 1966.

Performer of more than 1,000 school music concerts organized by JMF (Jeunesses Musicales de France), JMB (Jeunesses Musicales de Belgique), JMS (Jeunesses Musicales de Suisse), Rikskonsertene of Norway and Sweden.

Performer at more 150 International Music Festivals.

1970: International Sound Festival, Paris, France Festival of Arts Chiraz-Persepolis, Iran.

1971: Cinq Journées de Rencontre avec le Groupe de Recherches Musicales(GRM),Paris.

Indochinese Cultural Week, Geneva, Switzerland

Oriental Music Festival, Berlin, Germany.

Ajaccio Music Festival, Ajaccio, Corsica,France

15 Days of Folk Music with the Bourdon Folkclub, Geneva, Switzerland.

1972: Pamplona Music Festival, Pamplona, Spain

“La Geolette d’or”, Knokke le Zoute, Belgium

Traditional Music Festival, Vesdun, France.

SIGMA 8: Contemporary Music Festival, Bordeaux, France

1973: Music Festival of Royan, Royan, France.

International Folk Music Festival, Le Havre, France.

International Festival of Culture and Youth, Presles, France

1974: Folk Music Festival, Bezons, France

International Folk Music Festival, Colombes, France

Music Festival of Haut Var, Haut Var, France

Musicultura, Breukelen, The Netherlands.

1975: Three Days of Folk Music, Conflans Sainte Honorine, France

Vth Contemporary Music Festival, Bourges, France.

“La Geolette d’Or”, Knokke le Zoute, Belgium

Festival of Unwritten and Traditional Music, Chélon sur Saône, France.

International Folk Festival, Olivet, France.

1976: The Spring of Present Peoples, Paris, France

Summer Music Festival, Chailles, France

Festival of Marais, Paris, France

International Musical Days, Vernou, France.

A Month of Asian Arts, Alençon, France

Durham Oriental Music Festival, Durham, United Kingdom.

South East Asian Music Festival, Laon, France.

1977: International Musical Days, Vernou, France

IFMC World Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA

World Music Festival, Berkeley, USA.

1978: International Musical Days, Vernou, France

Traditional Music Festival, Lugano, Switzerland.

Saint Jean Music Festivities, Dieppe, France.

1979: Durham Oriental Music Festival, Durham, United Kingdom.

IFMC World Conference, Oslo, Norway

International Contemporary Music Festival, Clichy, France.

1980: Autum Festival, Paris, France.

International Folk Music Festival, Sarajevo, Yugoslavia.

1981: Asian Music Festival, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

ICTM World Conference, Seoul, Republic of Korea

1982: Kuhmo Chamber Music Festival, Kuhmo, Finland

Polyphonix: Poetry and Music Festival, Paris, France.

1983: First Third World Music Festival, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

ICTM World Conference, New York, USA

1984: Polyphonix: Poetry and Music Festival, New York, USA.(may)

Kaustinen Folk Music Festival, Kaustinen, Finland. (june)

Vitaasarii New Music Festival, Vitaasarii, Finland. (june)

Kuhmo Chamber Music Festival, Kuhmo, Finland. (june)

Festival of World Musical Cultures, Cape Town, South Africa.(july)

1985: First World Music Festival, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom. (april)

International Music Festival, Langeais, France.(june)

Estival Festival, Paris, France.(july)

1986: Music Festival of Three Continents, Nice, France( june)

Traditional Music Festival – North-South, Paris, France. (september)

Festival of Immigrant Musics, Paris, France. (september)

1987: Polyphonix: Poetry and Music Festival, Paris, France. (april)

Folk Music Festival, Ris Orangis, France. (may)

1988: First Meetings of Vocal Expressions, Abbaye de Fontevraud, France.(april)

Festival of World Music, Melbourne, Australia. (200 Years of Australia) (august)

Peoples Music Festival, Milan, Italy. (may)

Asian Music Festival, Etampes, France.(june)

1989: Bicentennial of the French Revolution, Paris, France. (july) Intercultural Festival, Saint Herblain, France. (july)

ICTM World conference, Schladming, Austria (july)

1990: Music Festival: “Blossoming Sounds, Floating Songs”, Osaka, Japan. (july)

First Forum of Asian and Pacific Performing Arts, Kobe, Japan. (july)

Asian Music Festival, Tamba, Japan. (july)

Traditional Music Festival, Arzila, Morocco.(august)

Berlin Music Festival, Berlin, Germany. (september)

Vox Populi, Brussels, Belgium (october)

1991: 700 years of Switzerland, Lausanne, Switzerland. (june)

Saint Denis Music Festival, Saint Denis, France. (june)

String Music Festival, Berlin, Germany.(september)

Vox Festival, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (february)

1992: 4th Meetings of Polyphonic Songs, Calvi, Corsica, France.

Festival around the Voice, Argenteuil, France

Festival about the Spirit of Voices, Perigueux, France.

Music Festival, Montreal, Canada (350 years of Montreal).

1993: Folk Music Festival / Ris Orangis, France. (may)

Voice Festival, Volterra, Italy.(june)

1994: Traditional Music Festival, Azilah, Morocco (august)

World Music Festival, Nantes, France. (september)

First Festival and Conference of the Asian / Pacific Society for Ethnomusicology,Seoul, Korea (november)

1995: Giving Voice: A Geography of the Voice, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom.(april)

2nd International Festival of Throat Singing, Kyzyl, Tuva, Russia.(june)

ICTM World Conference, Canberra, Australia (july)

International Festival of Choir, Musica Choralis, Luxembourg. (september)

1996: International Symposium of Vietnamese Music, Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA (march)

Giving Voice: An Archeology of the Voice, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom (april)

Festival of Oriental Music, Les Courmettes, France (june)

4th World Symposium of Choir, Sydney, Australia (august)

Stuttgarter Stimmtage 96, Stuttgart, Germany (september)

International Symposium on Ethnomusicology, Minsk, Belarus.(october)

3rd International Conference and Music Festival of the Asia/Pacific Society for Ethnomusicology, Mahasarakham, Thailand.(december)

1997: International Symposium: An Archeology of the Voice, Wales.(april)

International Conference of the ICTM, Nitra, Slovaquia.(june)

International Symposium and World Music Festival, Cape Town,South Africa (july).

Mediteria – Festival of Traditional Music, Montpellier, France (october)

Festival of World Music, Montigny, France (november)

International Symposium of Ethnomusicology, Vilnius, Lithuania.(december)

UNESCO-International Seminar on bamboo, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (december)

1998: TokkerFestival, Amsterdam, the Netherlands (february 7-8)

Festival of Mediterranean Musics, Genova, Italy (march 10-12)

Transcendant Asia: A Celebration of Asian Music in Europe, London, England (april 23-24)

Vietnamese Spring Festival, Paris, France. (april/may)

Voice Festival, Auch, France( may) 3rd International Jew’s Harp Festival, Molln, Austria.(june 22-28)

Bartok Music Festival, Hungary.(july 4-11)

23rd Saint Chartier/ Rencontres Internationales de Luthiers et Maîtres Sonneurs (July 11-14)

Autres Rivages/World Music Festival, Uzes, France (1-2 August)

International Music Festival, Bergamo, Italy (19-20 september)

Asian Music Festival, Firenza, Italy (october)

International Festival of Voice, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (november)

1999: Voice Festival: Between Heaven and Earth, Chartreuse de Valbonne, France (12 march)

Symposium: Culture and Mathematics, Venise, Italy (26-28 march)

Voice Festival: Eclats de Voix, Auch, France (30 marsch and 29 may )

Symposium : A Divinity of the Voice, Aberystwith, Wales (1-11 april )

Festival of Voices of the World, Bruxelles, Belgique (1-5 june )

Festival Bela Bartok, Sombathely, Hongrie (14-19 july)

World Conference ICTM, Hiroshima, Japon (18-24 august)

Yoga International Congress, Montélimar, France (29-31 october)

2000 : SCONTRI – Festival of Corsican Culture, Paris, France (12-13 february)

2ème Congrès annuel des Professtionnels de la Voix, Enghien les Bains (26-27 february)

Printemps musical de Pérouges / Au Fil de la Voix, Pérouges, France (may-june)

Tanz & Folk Fest Rudolstadt 2000, Rudolstadt, Allemagne, 4-7 july)

Congrès international sur l’enseignement de la voix, VASTA, Virginia, USA (6-9 august)

6th Annual CHIME Conference, Leiden, Pays-Bas (23-27 august)

Festival de Voix d’homme, Bretagne, France (15-17 september)

Congrès sur la Voix parlée, Stuttgart, Allemagne, (21-24 september)

Annual Congress of Acousticians , Kumamoto, Japon (3-5 october)

International Congress of Traditional Music, Taipei, Taiwan (6-15 october)

2001 : Symposium of Voice, Lyon, France (february)

Festival of Traditional Music, Denain, France (may)

City of London Festival , London, U.K. (june)

Festival ” Performato “, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (july)

ICTM World Conference , Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (july)

International Festival of Choral Music, Singapore (august)

Festival ” 1000 faces of Voice, France (september)

2002 : World Music Festival, Rennes, France (february)

International Voice Festival, Genoa, Italy (may)

13th Vivonne World Music Festival, Vivonne, France (may)

Music Day Festival, Beyrouth, Lebanon, (21 june)

6th World Symposium of Choral Music, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA (august)

World Festival of Jew’s Harps, Raudal, Norway (september)

International Congress of Polyphony, Tbilissi, Georgia, (october)

2003 : Making New Waves Contemporary Music Festival, Budapest, Hungary (February)

International Seminar of Shamanism , Genoa, Italy (June)

Telemark Folk Music Festival, Bo, Norvay (August)

International Congress of Psychotherapy , Hannover, Germany (September)

Suoni di Mondo Festival , Bologna, Italy (November)


2004

World Conference of the ICTM, Fushou, China (january)
International Festival « Making New Waves », Budapest, Hungary. (february)
International Congress of Musical Acoustics, Nara, Japan (april)
International Congress of Acoustics, Kyoto, Japan (april)
International Congress of Yoga, Vogüe, France (may)
3rd Festival « Le Rêve de l’Aborigène », Poitiers, France(july)
International Congress of Shamanism, University of Donau, Krems, Austria (july)
Manifestations scientifiques et musicales dans le cadre « Lille, Ville européenne culturelle 2004 , Lille, France (july)
International Seminar on Voice, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom (july)
International Symposium of Sung and Spoken Voice, Stuttgart, Germany (september)

2005
International Festival of Avant Garde Music « Making New Waves », Budapest, Hungary (february)
International Festival of Choral Music, Arnhem, the Netherlands (april)
International Festival of Mediterranean Music, Genova, Italy (june)
Sunplash Festival of Reggae music, Italy (june)
World Conference of the ICTM, Sheffield, United Kingdom (august)
MELA Festival, Oslo, Norway (august)
1st World Festival of Marranzanu, Cantania, Sicily, Italy (september)
International Symposium of Voice, Stuttgart, Germany (september)
« 30 ans d’existence de l’Université en Haute Alsace », Mulhouse, France (october)
International Festival of Traditional Music, Limerick, Ireland (october)

2006
Têt in Seattle, Seattle, USA (january)
2ème Rencontre sur la parole chantée, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (may)
Festival « La Semaine du Son », Châlon sur Saône, France (june)
International Seminar on Ca Trù, Hanoi, Viet Nam (june)
Festival international des Musiques sacrées, Fribourg, Switzerland (july)
5th International Jew’s Harp Festival, Amsterdam, the Netherlands (july)
MELA festival, Oslo, Norway (august)
International Meeting of the ICTM, Ljubliana, Slovenia (september)
International Congress of Applied Ethnomusicology, Ljubliana, Slovenia (september)
International Symposium of Voice, Stuttgart, Germany.(september)
International Meeting « Music as Memory », Oslo, Norway (october)
The Global Forum on Civilization and Peace, Seoul, Korea. (november)

2007
Bilan du film ethnographique, Paris, France (march)
Voice Festival / 9th session of the ILV/ CETC, Buenos Aires, Argentina (march)
Symposium on music therapy, Sao Paulo, Brazil (april)
Bergen International Music OI OI Festival, Bergen, Norway (may-june)
Homage to Demetrio Stratos, Alberone di Cento, Italy (june)
39th World conference of the ICTM, Vienna, Austria (july)
PEVOC 7 – International Congress on Voice, Groningen, the Netherlands (august)
International Doromb Jew’s Harp Festival, Hungary (september)

2008

A Week of Sound Festival, Lyon, France (january)

Unesco Congress of World Heritage, Canberra, Australia (february)

Giving Voice, Aberystwith, New Wales (march)

Bergen International Music OI OI Festival, Bergen, Norway (may/june)

Homage to Demetrio Stratos, Alberone di Cento, Italy (june)

“A Voix Haute” Festival,Bagnères de Bigorre, France (august)

MELA music festival, Oslo, Norway (august)

International Voice Festival, Dresden, Germany (september)

2009

Voice Festival, Switzerland (may)

Homage to Demetrio Stratos, Alberone di Cento, Italy (june)

40th World conference of the ICTM, Durban, South Africa (july)

International Congress of Voice Teachers, Paris, France (july)

MELA Music Festival, Oslo, Norway (august)

2010

Homage to Demetrio Stratos, Alberone di Cento, Italy (june)

International of Sound, Saint John’s, Canada (july)

ICTM 2 study groups meeting , Hanoi , Vietnam (july)

Vietnamese Guiness Record Ceremony, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam, (december)

2011

International Symposium on Dan Ca tai tu Nam bo, Ho Chi Minh city (January)

International colloquial about 400 years of the birth of Phu Yen city, Phu Yên, Vietnam (april

“Le Vietnam à Lorient”, Lorient, France (may)

World Jew’s Harp Festival in Yakutsk, Yakutia (june)

Homage to Demetrio Stratos, Alberone di Cento, Italy (june)

International Festival of Mediterranean Music, Genova, Italy (july)

World Conference ICTM in Saint John’s , Canada (july)

World Symposium of Choral Music, Puerto Madryn, Argentina (august)

Spring Festival of South African Music, Fort Hare, South Africa (september)

International Festival of Humour and Music, Stavanger, Norway (september)

Peace Festival, Wroclaw, Poland (october)

30th International Ethnographical Film Festival, Paris, (november)

International Conference of Arirang , Seoul, Korea (december)

2012

Festival d’Auch, Auch, France (april)

Festival Music Night, Munich, Germany (april)

2013

Festival de la Voix, Colombes, France (may)

ICTM WORLD CONFERENCE , Shang Hai , China (july)

Festival Les Nuits du Monde “Vietnam Style”, Geneva, Switzerland (November)

Exhibition VOICE – « Voices of the World », City of Sciences, Paris, France (december 2013 – september 2014)

Congress “Biomedical Signal Processing & Control (Elsevier) devoted to the workshop MAVEBA, Florence, Italy (december)

World Marranzano Festival , Catania, Sicily, Italy (december)

2014

Festival “Pauses Musicales”, Toulouse, France (February)

“Promenade Vietnam”, City of Music, Paris, France (march)

International Conference “Safeguarding & Promotion of Folk Songs in the Contemporary Society”, Vinh city, province of Nghệ An, Vietnam (may)

Ancient Trance Festival – Jew’s harp world festival, Taucha, Germany (august)

10 Internationale Stuttgarter Stimmtage, Stuttgart, Germany (october)

Opening ceremony of the World Vocal Clinic / Deutsche Stimmklinik, Hamburg, Germany (october)

Festival « Il teatro vivo », Bergamo, Italy (november)

 

2015

Omaggio a Demetrio Stratos, Alberone, Italy (june)

ICTM World Conference , Astana, Kazakhstan (july)

Festival of Hát Then Nùng Thái, Việt Bắc , Vietnam (september)

Convegne, Concerti e master class dedicati al « canto sardo e canto armonico nel mondo », Sorso , Sardinia, Italy (october)

 

2016

Festival of Chầu Văn (Vietnamese music of possession ), Nam Định, Vietnam (january)

Voice Encounters : Voice Pedagogy, Wroclaw, Poland (april)

International Meeting A GRAN VOCE , Vicenza , Italy (may)

Omaggio a Demetrio Stratos 2016, Alberone, Italy (june)

Ancient Trance Festival , Taucha, Germany (August)

12th international Voice Symposium « BRAIN & VOICE », Salzburg , Austria (august)

2017

44th ICTM World Conference, Limerick, Ireland (july)

Congress “Voci e Soni “Di Dentro e Di Fuori”, Padova, Italy (october)

Congress La Voce Artistica 2017 XI edìtion, Ravenna, Italy (october)

Career

Ethnomusicologist: Musée National des Arts et Traditions Populaires, Paris,1968-1987

Ethnomusicologist: Musée de l’Homme, Paris, since 1968.

Professor: Centre of Studies for Oriental Music, Paris, 1970-1975.

Lecturer: Université de Paris X-Nanterre, 1987-1995.

Lecturers of many Universities and Museums in the World since 1969:

USA : University of Hawaii (1977), University of Maryland (1980), Columbia University, New York (1983), Museum of Modern Art, New York (1984), University of California, San Diego (UCSC, 1990), Cornell University, New York (1994), Saint Thomas University, Minnesota (1996), University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin (1998), George Mason University, Washington D.C.(2000)

Canada :University of Montreal, Montreal (1991), York University, Toronto (1994), University of Toronto (1994), Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto (1994)

Brazil: Conservatorium of Music, Rio de Janeiro (1983), University of Recife, Recife (1998) , University of Rio de Janeiro (2006),

South Africa : Cape Town University, Cape Town (1984, 1997), Stellenbosch University (1984), University of Durban (2009), University of Fort Hare (2011)

Australia : Monash University, Melbourne (1986), University of Sydney, Sydney (1986), Western Australian University, Perth (1986, 2008), Melbourne College of Advanced Education, Melbourne (1988)

Philippines: University of the Philippines, Manila (1988)

Japan:Tokyo University of Fine Arts, Tokyo (1981), Miyagi University of Music Education, Sendai (1999), Université de Hiroshima, Hiroshima (1999), OsakaUniversity of Fine Arts, Osaka (2000)

Korea: Seoul National University, Seoul (1981)

Thailand: Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham (1996)

Taiwan : Université de Taiwan, Taipei (2000), Centre National des Arts , Taipei (2000)

Liban : CLAC (centre de lecture et d’animation culturelle) à Barja , Mansoura, Kfar Debyan, Amioun ,( 2002)

Austria : University of Austria (2007)

Belgium: Institute of Musicology, Louvain (1976), Royal Museum of Central Africa (1976), Royal Museum of Musical Instruments, Brussels (1980, 2001), University of Anvers (1984), Musee Royal de Mariemont, Mariement (2002)

Italy: Institute of Musicology, Bologna (1979), French Cultural Center, Napoli (1980),Academia Nacionale Santa Cecilia, Roma (1994), University of Roma (1994), Institute of Musicology and Linguistics, Venice (1995, 1996), University of Bologna, Bologna (2000), Institute of Musictherapry, Padova, Italy (2001), Fondazione Giorgio Cini, Venice (1979, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004,2005,2006, 2007, 2008) , Institute IATGONG for traditional music, Genoa, (2003,2007)

The Netherlands: Jaap Kunst Center for Ethnomusicology, Amsterdam (1974),Gemeente Museum, The Haye (1980), Tropen Museum (1975, 1992, 1998), University of Leiden, Leiden (2000)

Germany: Volkerkunde Museum, Berlin (1985, 1990, 2000), La Charité Hospital, Berlin (1991), Musik Hochschole, Detmold (1994), Musik Hochschole, Stuttgart (1996, 2000,2014), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (1997), University of Aachen, Aachen (2003)

United Kingdom: Horniman Museum, London (1974), Durham University, Durham (1976, 1979, 1985), University of London, London (1991), City University, London (1992), SOAS (School of Oriental and African Studies), London (1998), Queen’s University, Belfast (1985), Centre of Performance Research,Cardiff (1995,1996), University of Reading, London (2005)

Ireland : Limerick University, Limerick (2005, 2017), Cork University (2005)

France: many universities in different towns from 1974 onwards: Universite de Paris IV-Sorbonne, Univeriste de Paris VIII-Saint Denis, Universite de Paris X-Nanterre, Paris; Universite de Nice; Universite deTours; University of Rennes ; Conservatoire National Régional de la musique, Strasbourg; Universite de Montpellier 3, Montpellier; Universite de Marseille; Universite Le Mirail, Toulouse, Université de Poitiers, Poitiers , Universite de la Reunion, Ile de la Reunion (1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 , 2003)

Switzerland: Volkerkunde Museum, Basel (1969), Academy of Music, Basel (1993)

Spain: Summer University, Madrid (1990)

Yugoslavia: Academy of Music, Sarajevo (1991)

Sweden: Lund University, Lund (1976), Stockholm University, Stockholm (1976), Musik Museet, Stockholm (1981), Royal Academy of Music, Stockholm (1985),

Denmark: Musikhistorisk Museum, Copenhagen (1972), Danish Folk Archive Institute , Copenhagen (1972), Conservatory of music, Holstebro (1972), Nordisk Teaterlaboratorium, Holstebro (1998), Cantabile 2, Vordingborg (2000)

Norway: Institute of Musicology, Trondheim (1976,1980, 1981), University of Oslo (1979), Music Academy Sibelius, Bergen (2004), Musik Folkehogskole, Oslo (2003)

Poland : 17th Summer Course for Young Composers, Polish Society for Contemporary Music, Radziejowice, Poland (1997), University of Wroclaw, Poland, 2011

Russia: National Conservatory Tchaikovsky, Moscow (1993), Institute of Research for World Music Cultures, Moscow (1993), International Center of Khoomei, Kyzyl, Tuva (1995).

Georgia : Conservatory of Music , Tbilissi (2002)

Lithuania: Academy of Music, Vilnius (1997)

Belarus: Academy of Music, Minsk (1996)

Slovenia : University of Ljubljana (2006, 2011)

Croatia : University of Zagreb (2006)

China : National Conservatory of Shang Hai (2013)

Musician

15 LP records and 5 CDs as performer on Vietnamese Music (with different record companies: Le Chant du Monde, OCORA, Studio SM, Société Française deProductions Phonographiques, Playasound in France, Lyrichord, Music of the World in the USA, Albatros in Italy.

  1. Cithare Vietnamienne (le Dan Tranh) par Tran Quang Hai. Le Chant du Monde LDX 74454, Paris, 1971, collection Special Instrumental.
  2. Le Chant de la Rivière des Parfums. Productions et Editions Sonores PES 528 003, Paris, 1973.
  3. Vietnam: Nouvelle Musique Traditionnelle. OCORA 558 012, Paris, 1976.
  4. Musique du Vietnam: Tradition du Sud. Anthologie de la musique des Peuples AMP 72903, Paris, 1976.
  5. Musique Traditionnelle du Vietnam. Aide à l’Enfance du Vietnam AEV 01, Paris, 1976.
  6. Musica del Vietnam. Albatros Records VPA 8396, Milan, 1978.
  7. Vietnam: Tran Quang Hai et Bach Yen. Playasound PS 33514, Paris, 1979, collection: Musiques de l’Asie traditionnelle, vol.10.
  8. Cithare et Chants Populaires du Vietnam/ Tran Quang Hai et Bach Yen. Aide à l’Enfance du Vietnam AEV 02, Paris, 1979.
  9. Music of Vietnam. Lyrichord LLST 7337, New York, 1980.
  10. Vietnam/ Tran Quang Hai et Bach Yen. Studio SM 3311.97, Paris, 1983. Grand Prix du Disque de l’Académie Charles Cros 1983
  11. Vietnamese Dan Tranh Music/ Tran Quang Hai. Lyrichord LLST 7375 ,New York, 1983.
  12. Shaman/Tran Quang Hai et Misha Lobko. Didjeridou Records DJD O1, Paris, 1983.
  13. MUSAICA: chansons d’enfants des émigrés. DEVA RIC 1-2, Paris, 1984.
  14. Landscape of the Highlands/ Tran Quang Hai. Music of the World MW 004, New York, 1984.
  15. Le Monde Magique du Dan Tranh/ Tran Quang Hai. Viet Productions VN 1944, Paris, 1985.
  16. CD: Rêves et Réalités – Tran Quang Hai et Bach Yen. Playasound PS 65020, Paris, 1988.
  17. CD: Cithare vietnamienne/Tran Quang Hai. Playasound PS 65103, Paris, 1993.
  18. CD: Landscape of the Highlands/String Music from Vietnam/Tran Quang Hai. Latitudes LAT 50612, North Carolina, USA, 1997.
  19. CD: Phillip Peris/Didjeridu. Les Cinq Planètes CP 10296, Paris, 1997.
  20. CD: Les Guimbardes du Monde / Tran Quang Hai. Playasound PS 66009, Paris, 1997.
  21. CD: That’s All Folk! Le Chant du Monde CML 5741015.16, 2CDs, Paris1997.
  22. CD: International Jew’s Harp Festival Molln Austria ’98, CD-0513, 2CDs, Molln, 1999.

5 commercialized cassettes on pop music of Vietnam

1 videocassette on Vietnamese Music (1984)

1 videocassette “Music of Vietnam” produced by Ministry of Education in Perth (Australia) (1989)

1 videocassette on “Tran Quang Hai performance” produced by the Melbourne College of Advanced Education in Melbourne (Australia) (1989)

1 videocassette on “Dan Tranh Music” produced by Volkerkunde Museum, Berlin (Germany) 1991.

Performer for film music in 25 commercialized films

Performer of nearly 3,000 concerts in 60 countries around the world since 1966.

Performer of more than 1,000 school music concerts organized by JMF (Jeunesses Musicales de France), JMB (Jeunesses Musicales de Belgique), JMS (Jeunesses Musicales de Suisse), Rikskonsertene of Norway and Sweden.

Composer

300 pop songs in Vietnamese, French, English

100 musical compositions for different musical instruments: 16 stringed zither, monochord, spoons, Jew’s harp, overtone singing.

3 compositions for electro-acoustical music (1975, 1988, 1989, see creative works)

Researcher

Author of a book Âm Nhac Viêt Nam ” (Music of Vietnam in Vietnamese) , edited by Nhom Bac Dâu, 361pages, Paris, 1989.

Author of a book “Musiques du Monde” (in French), edited by J-M Fuzeau, 320 pages, 3 CD, Courlay, 1993.(with Michel Asselineau and Eugene Berel)

Author of a book “Musics of the World ” (in English), edited by J-M Fuzeau, 320pages, 3 CD, Courlay, 1994. (with Michel Asselineau and Eugene Berel)

Author of a book “Musik aus aller Welt ” (in German), edited by J-M Fuzeau, 320pages, 3 CD, Courlay, 1996. (with Michel Asselineau and Eugene Berel)

Author of a book “Musicas del Mundo” (in Spanish), edited by J-M Fuzeau, 320pages, 3 CD, Courlay, 1998. (with Michel Asselineau and Eugene Berel)

Author of a book “Musiques et Danses Traditionnelles d’Europe ” (in French), edited by J -M Fuzeau, 380pages, 2 CD, Courlay, 1995.

Author of a book (in cooperation with Patrick Kersale), VOIX , DVD, edited by Lugdivine, Lyon, 2006

Author or more than 250 articles on Vietnamese and Asian musics

Co-ordinator for New Grove’s Dictionary of Musical Instruments on South East Asian Music (1st edition, 1984) 3 volumes

Author of articles in New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (6thedition, 1980, 20 volumes), Algemeine Muziekencyclopedia (Holland, 1982, 12 volumes), Encyclopaedia Universalis (France, 1984, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1991)

Co-author with Hugo Zemp for the film 16mm on the overtone singing style “Le Chant des Harmoniques” (The Song of Harmonics) produced by the National Center for Scientific Research-Audio Visual, Paris, 1989)

Contributor to the bilingual notes (188pages) accompanying the 3CD set

“Voices of the World” edited by Le Chant du Monde, Paris, 1996

Contributor to the bilingual notes (124pages) accompanying the 2CD set “Vietnam: Musics of the Montagnards ” edited by Le Chant du Monde, Paris,1997.

Researcher specializing in Vietnamese Music, South East Asian Music, Overtone Singing Style, Music Therapy, Music Pedagogy, Creation of NewTechniques for Vietnamese 16 stringed zither, Jew’s Harps, Spoons.

Author of more than 500 articles in Vietnamese for 30 Vietnamese magazines in America, Europe, Asia and Australia.

Creative Works

Nho Miên Thuong Du (Nostalgia of the Highlands) for 16 stringed zither(1971)

Xuân Vê (The Spring Is Coming Back) for 16 stringed zither (1971)

Tieng Hat Song Huong (The Song of the Perfumed River) for monochord (1972)

Ao Thanh (The Magic Sound) for Spoons (1972)

Vê Nguôn (Return to the Sources) with Nguyên Van Tuong, (1975)

Shaman for Voice, saxo, synthetizer (1982)

Hat Hai Giong (Diphonic Song) (1982)

Ca Doi Ca (Song vs Song) for overtones (1982)

Tuy Hung Muong (Improvisation of Spoons) for Spoons (1982)

Doc Tau Dan Moi Mong (Solo of Mong Jew’s Harp) for Jew’s Harp (1982)

Tieng Hat Dan Moi Tre (The Song of the Bamboo Jew’s Harp) for Jew’s Harp(1982)

Sinh Tien Nhip Tau (Rhythm of Coin Clappers) for Coin Clappers (1982)

Tiet Tau Mien Thuong (Rhythm of the Highlands) for 2 Jew’s Harps (1982)

Nui Ngu Sông Huong (Royal Mount and Perfumed River) for monochord (1983)

Nam Bac Môt Nha ( North and South, the Same House) for 16 stringed zither(1986)

Chuyên Hê (Modulation) (1986)

Tro Vê Nguôn Côi (Return to the Origin) (electro-acoustical music) (1988)

Solo Thai for 16 stringed zither (1989)

Tambours 89 in cooperation with Yves Herwan Chotard (1989)

Envol for overtones (1989)

Chuyên Hê Ba Miên (Metabole on three regions) for 16 stringed zither (1993)

Mông Dên Vùng Viêt Bac (Dream of Viet Bac) for 16 stringed zither (1993)

Vinh Ha Long ( Ha Long Bay) for 16 stringed zither (1993)

Sông Huong Nui Ngu (The Perfumed River and the Royal Mount) for 16 stringed zither (1993)

Tiêng Vang Dan Trung Tây Nguyên (Echo of the musical instrument Trung of the Highlands) for 16 stringed zither (1993)

Nho Miên Nam (Nostalgia of the South) for 16 stringed zither (1993)

Saigon-Cholon (Saigon-Cholon The Twin Cities) for 16 stringed zither (1993)

Vinh Long Thoi Tho Au (Vinh Long, My Childhood) for 16 stringed zither (1993)

Cuu Long Giang thân yêu (the Beloved Mekong River) for 16 stringed zither(1993)

Hôn Viêt Nam (The Soul of Viet Nam) for 16 stringed zither (1993)

A Bali, on entend le genggong rab ncas (In Bali, one hears the jew’s harp genggong) for Jew’s Harp (1997)

Paysage des Hauts-Plateaux (Landscape of the Highlands) for Jew’s Harp (1997)

Nostalgie au Pays Mong ( Nostalgia of the Mong Land) for Jew’s Harp (1997)

Souvenir à Alexeiev et Chichiguine (Souvenir of Alexeiev and Chichiguine) for Jew’s Harp (1997)

Bachkir-Bachkirie (Bashkir-Bashkiria) for Jew’s Harp (1997)

Orient-Occident (East-West) for Jew’s Harp (1997)

Souvenir de Norvege (Souvenir from Norway) for Jew’s Harp (1997)

Vietnam, mon Pays (Vietnam, my Country) for Jew’s Harp (1997)

Tuva! Tuva! (Tuva! Tuva!) for Jew’s Harp (1997)

La Mélodie des Harmoniques (The melody of Harmonics) for Jew’s Harp (1997)

Ambiance des Hauts-Plateaux du Vietnam (Atmosphere of the Highlands of Vietnam) for Jew’s Harp (1997)

Echo des montagnes (Echo of Mountains) for Jew’s Harp (1997)

Taiga mysterieux (Mysterious Taiga) for Jew’s Harp (1997)

Le Saut des Crapauds (The Jump of Toads) for Jew’s Harp (1997)

Harmonie des Guimbardes (Harmonie of Jew’s Harps) for Jew’s Harp (1997)

L’Univers harmonique (The Harmonic Universe) for Jew’s Harp (1997)

Consonances ! (Consonances !) for Jew’s Harp (1997).

Vietnam, My Motherland for Jew’s Harp (1998)

Welcome to Molln Jew’s Harp Festival 1998 for Jew’s Harp (1998)

Film music for the film Long Vân Khanh Hôi (The Meeting of the Dragon and the Clouds) 1980.

Film music for the film Le Chant des Harmoniques (The Song of Harmonics), 1989.

Film music for the film La Rencontre du Dragon et du Coq (The Meeting of the Dragon and the Cock) (1997)

Memberships in different Scientific Societies

Society for Ethnomusicology, USA, since 1969.

Society for Asian Music, USA, since 1978.

International Council for Traditional Music, USA, since 1976 (Liaison Officer since 1991)

International Musicological Society, Switzerland, since 1977.

International Association of Sound Archives, Australia, since 1978.

European Seminar in Ethnomusicology, Switzerland, since 1983

Société Française d’Ethnomusicologie, France, since 1985 (founding member)

Société de Musicologie, France, since 1980.

Association Française d’Archives Sonores, France, since 1979.

Centre of Studies for Oriental Music, France, since 1962 (Professor from 1970 to 1975)

Vietnamese Penclub in Europe, France, since 1987.

Center of Vietnamese Studies, France, since 1987

Association Française de Recherche sur l’Asie du Sud-Est, France, since 1983.

Société des Auteurs, Compositeurs et Editeurs de la Musique (SACEM), Paris, since 1983.

International Center of Khoomei, Tuva, Russia, since 1995.

Honorary Member of the Scientific Society of Vietnamese Professionals, Canada, since 1992.

Life Fellow, International Adviser, Deputy Governor of the American Biographical Institute and Research Association, USA, since 1987.

Life Fellow, International Adviser, Director Deputy General of the International Biographical Association, United Kingdom, since 1987.

Consultant of the Prize Diderot for the Encyclopaedia Universalis, France, since 1990.

Board Committee of the International Association of Jew’s Harp, Austria, since 1998.<

Participation to these CDs

“Voices of the World”, 3 CD, booklet in French/English (188pages), edited by Le Chant du Monde, collection CNRS/Musée de l’Homme, Paris, 1996. Grand Prix du Disque de l’Académie Charles Cros 1997, Le Diapason d’Or de l’Année1997, Le CHOC de l’Année 1997.

“Vietnam: Musics of the Montagnards”, 2 CD, booklet in French/English (124pages), edited by Le Chant du Monde, collection CNRS/Musée de l’Homme,Paris, 1997. Le Diapason d’Or, Le CHOC

“Phillip Peris – Didjeridu” , edited by Les Cinq Planètes, Paris, 1997.

“Klangfarben der Kulturen”, edited by Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Berlin, 1998.

“World Festival of Jew’s Harp in Molln”, 2CDs edited by Molln Jew’s Harp Ass., Austria, 1999.

Performer of more than 3,500 concerts in 70 countries around the world since 1966.

Performer of more than 1,500 school music concerts organized by JMF (Jeunesses Musicales de France), JMB (Jeunesses Musicales de Belgique), JMS (Jeunesses Musicales de Suisse), Rikskonsertene of Norway and Sweden from 1971 to 2005.

Memberships in different Scientific Societies

Society for Ethnomusicology, USA, since 1969.

Society for Asian Music, USA, since 1978.

International Council for Traditional Music, USA, since 1976 (Liaison Officer since 1991)

International Musicological Society, Switzerland, since 1977.

International Association of Sound Archives, Australia, since 1978.

European Seminar in Ethnomusicology, Switzerland, since 1983

Société Française d’Ethnomusicologie, France, since 1985 (founding member)

Société de Musicologie, France, since 1980.

Association Française d’Archives Sonores, France, since 1979.

Centre of Studies for Oriental Music, France, since 1962 (Professor from 1970 to 1975)

Vietnamese Penclub in Europe, France, since 1987.

Center of Vietnamese Studies, France, since 1987

Association Française de Recherche sur l’Asie du Sud-Est, France, since 1983.

Société des Auteurs, Compositeurs et Editeurs de la Musique (SACEM), Paris, since 1983.

International Center of Khoomei, Tuva, Russia, since 1995.

Honorary Member of the Scientific Society of Vietnamese Professionals, Canada, since 1992.

Life Fellow, International Adviser, Deputy Governor of the American Biographical Institute and Research Association, USA, since 1987.

Life Fellow, International Adviser, Director Deputy General of the International Biographical Association, United Kingdom, since 1987.

Consultant of the Prize Diderot for the Encyclopaedia Universalis, France, since 1990.

Board Committee of the International Association of Jew’s Harp, Austria, since 1998.

Founding member of the American Order of Excellency, USA , in 2002

Honorary member of the Institute of Musicology, Hanoi, Vietnam , since 2004

Board Member of the ICTM, Slovenia, 2005 – 2017

Biographical Reference Books:

  1. Dictionary of International Biography, 15th edition, United Kingdom
  2. Men of Achievements, 5th, 6th, 7th editions, United Kingdom.
  3. International Who’s Who in Community Service, 3rd edition, United Kingdom
  4. International Who’s Who in Music, 8th,9th,10th,11th,12th,13th,14th,15th,16th,17th, 18th editons, since 1982,U.K.
  5. Who’s Who in Europe, 2nd, 3rd editions, U.K.
  6. Men and Women in Distinction, 1st, 2nd editions, U.K.
  7. International Register of Profiles, 4th, 5th editions, U.K.
  8. International Who’s Who of Intellectuals, 2nd, 3rd editions, U.K.
  9. The First Five Hundreds, 1st edition, U.K.
  10. Who’s Who in the World, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th,

15th,16th, 17th, 18th editions, since 1983,USA

  1. 5000 Personalities in the World, 1st edition, USA
  2. International Directory of Distinguished Leadership, 1st edition, USA
  3. International Book of Honor, 1st edition, USA
  4. International Register of Personalities, 1st edition, USA
  5. Nouveau Dictionnaire Européen, 5th,6th,7th,8th,9th editions,1985,BELGIUM
  6. Who’s Who in International Art, 1st edition, 1989, SWITZERLAND
  7. Who’s Who in France, 29th, 30th, 31st, 32nd, 33th, 34th, 35th, 36th, 37th,etc.. editions,since 1997,FRANCE
  8. Who’s Who in Entertainment, 3rd edition, 1998-1999,U.K.
  9. Who’s Who in Popular Music, 2nd edition, 1998, U.K.
  10. Ve Vang Dan Viet – The Pride of the Vietnamese, vol.1, 1st, 2nd editions, 1993, USA
  11. Fils et Filles du Vietnam, 1st edition, 1997, USA
  12. Tuyên Tâp Nghê Si (Selection of Vietnamese Artists), vol. 1, 1st edition, 1995, CANADA
  13. Guide du Show Business, from 20th to 40 th editions (since 1983), FRANCE
  14. Director Deputy General List of Honour, 1998, U.K.
  15. The Europe 500 Leaders for the New Century, Barons Who’s Who, Etats-Unis(2000)
  16. QUID (since 2000), France
  17. 500 Great Minds of the Early 21st Century, Bibliotheque World Wide, Etats-Unis (2002)

Prizes, Honours, Awards:

1983: Grand Prize of Academy Charles Cros, Paris for LP “Vietnam/Tran Quang Hai and Bach Yen (SM 3011.97) 1986: Medaille d’Or de la Musique (Gold Medal of Music) / Asian Cultural Academy, Paris. 1987: D.MUS (HON) / International University Foundation, USA. 1987: Life Fellow of the American Biograhical Institute and Research Association, USA. 1987: Deputy Governor (DG) of the American Biographical Institute, USA 1987: Life Fellow of the International Biographical Centre (IBC), UK 1987: Director Deputy General (DDG) of the International Biographical Centre, UK. 1988: International Advisor of the American Biographical Institute, USA 1988: International Order of Merit/ International Biographical Centre, UK 1989: Ph.D (HON) / Albert Einstein International Academy Foundation, USA. 1990: Grand Prize of the International Festival of Anthropological and Visual Film for the film “The Song of Harmonics”, Parnü,Estonia. 1990: Prize of the Best Ethnomusicological Film for the film “The Song of Harmonics” delivered by the Academy of Sciences, Parnü, Estonia. 1990: Special Research Prize of the International Festival of Scientific Film for the film “The Song of Harmonics”, Palaiseau, France. 1991: Grand Prize Northern Telecom of the 2nd International Festival of Scientific Film of Quebec for the film “The Song of Harmonics”, Montreal, Canada. 1991: Van Laurens Award of the British Voice Association and the Ferens Institute for the best paper on overtone singing research , London, UK 1991: Honorary International Advisor of the International Biographical Centre, UK 1991: Alfred Nobel Medal of the Albert Einstein Academy Foundation, USA. 1991: Man of the Year 1991/ American Biographical Institute, USA 1991: International Man of the Year 1991/1992/ International Biographical Centre, UK 1992: Honorary Member of the Vietnamese Scientific Society of the Professionals, Canada 1994: Man of the Year / American Biographical Institute, USA 1994 : Gold Record of Achievement par American Biographical Institute, Etats-Unis 1995: Special Prize of the 2nd International Festival of Throat Voice, Kyzyl, Tuva. 1995: Honorary Scientific Member of the International Center of Khoomei, Kyzyl, Tuva. 1996: Medal of Cristal / National Center for Scientific Research, Paris, France. 1997: Prize of the Academy of Records Charles Cros for the CDs Voices of the World (collective work), Paris, France 1997: Le Diapason d’Or of the Year for the CDs Voices of the World (collective work), Paris, France. 1997: Le CHOC of the Year for the CDs Voices of the World (collective work), Paris, France. 1998: The Medal of Honor/ City Hall of Limeil Brevannes, France. 1998 : The Platinum Record for Special Performance in Music and Overtone Singing, USA 1998 : Special Prize of Jew’s Harp , 3rd World Jew’s Harp Festival, Molln, Austria 2002 : Highest Distinction of France : Knight of the Legion of Honor (Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur), Medal of Honor, category Great Gold (Médaille d’Honneur du Travail, catégorie Grand Or), France, 2009, Medal of the founding member of the French Society for Ethnomusicology , Paris, France , 2017.

Other relevant informations

Tran Quang Hai is the first Vietnamese musician who performed at special events: Bicentennial of Australia in Melbourne (1988), Bicentennial of the French Revolution in Paris (1989), 700 Years of Switzerland in Lausanne (1991), 350 Years of Montreal in Montreal, Canada (1992), 500 Years of Christophe Columbus’ Discovery of America in Paris (1992), 600 Years of Seoul in Seoul, Korea (1994), Jubilee of the King of Thailand in Mahasarakham, Thailand (1996), 1000 Years of Trondheim in Norway (1997).

He is the first Vietnamese musician who performed different works composed by contemporary composers such as Nguyên Van Tuong (died in 1996), Bernard Parmegiani, Nicolas Frize, Yves Herwan Chotard, and also film music composed by Vladimir Cosma, Philippe Sarde, Maurice Jarre, Gabriel Yared, Jean Claude Petit.

He practises 15 musical instruments belonging to Europe (violin, guitar, banjo, mandoline, flute), Vietnam (zither dan tranh, monochord dan doc huyen, 2 stringed fiddle dan co, coin clappers sinh tien, spoons muong, ),China (2 stringed fiddle nan hu), India (lutes tampura, vina) Iran (drum zarb), European and Asian Jew’s Harps.

His research on overtones since 1969 has given him the title of the- greatest specialist of overtone singing with more than 8000 persons who have learnt this peculiar vocal style with him from 70 countries around the world. He got the Cristal Medal of the National Center for Scientific Research in 1996 for his research on overtones, and the recipient ” Knight of the Legion of Honor ” given by the French President Jacques Chirac in 2002 for his career as musician and musicologist since 1966 , the Medal of Work, Great Gold category in 2009 for his 41 years’ career at the National Center for Scientific Research, the Diploma of Vietnamese Guiness Book 2010 for the title “KING OF SPOONS” in 2010 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and the Diploma of Vietnamese Guiness book 2012 for the title “The Musician who has presented the Vietnamese Đàn môi Jew’s harp in the biggest number of countries in the world”.

CONTACT: TRAN QUANG HAI 12 rue Gutenberg 94450 LIMEIL BREVANNES France Tel : (33-1) 45 69 55 77 (overseas)

cellphone : +33 6 50 25 73 67 E-mail: tranquanghai@gmail.com

Websites: http://tranquanghai.com,  http://tranquanghai.info

http://tranquanghai1944.com

Blogs : http://haidiphonie.wordpress.com

http://tranquanghaidanmoivn.wordpress.com

 

 

 

 

Dr.TRAN QUANG HAI: Music of the Montagnards of Vietnam


Music & The Arts:

Music of the Montagnards of Vietnam

By Dr. Tran Quang Hai
French National Center for Scientific Research, Paris

 

 

Introduction

 

Whoever looks for the first time at a colored ethnolinguistic map of Southeast Asia — such as the one published in 1949 by the ecole francaise d’Extreme-Orient — may have the impression of being in front of a tachiste canvas, or a fairly complicated mosaic. Such an impression would be justified, since Southeast Asia is the most complex region in the world from either the linguistic or ethnographic point of view.

 

This complexity of human groupings is a reflection of the habitats. If we step back and glance at a physical map of Southeast Asia as a whole, we see it has a surprising relief, cut by five great rivers with sources in the Himalayan foothills which, as they distance themselves, look like the five spread fingers of a hand placed flat. Long mountain chains fan out, following in general the directions west-east and north-south of the major water-flows, with each reaching the sea via vast deltas, interrupting the winding, jagged Southeast Asian coasts. The climate of the region is that of the humid tropics, perhaps better characterized when recalling that this is part of monsoon Asia.

 

We spoke above of the complexity of human groupings, evident on all maps. All possible forms of technological levels and political systems are there side by side, from bands of nomadic hunter-gatherers in the deep forest to states of vast size with highly hierarchical political structures. In between, there is a whole range of political forms: from acephalic villages to chiefdoms, from principalities to confederations. A considerable variety of agricultural techniques for the cultivation of rice is deployed, ranging from different kinds of shifting slash-and-burn methods, to different types of flooded rice-paddies, by rains or by irrigation.

 

As for religions, one may say that, in general, animism reigns in the mountainous regions, with the sacrifice of buffalos as culminating rite. Islam is implanted on the coast of central Vietnam, among the Cham, where a rump form of Brahmanism also survives. Finally, if Catholicism has almost failed in areas of Hinayist Buddhism (the “Base Career”), it has succeeded in implanting itself among the Mahayanists (the “Great Career”) and on the Highlands.

 

It is above all on the linguistic side that the greatest complexity is manifest. Southeast Asia is in fact the territory for five families of languages. Of course, in each of these families, the speakers of different languages do not understand one another any more than do the French, Russians and Germans (who are notwithstanding all part of the one Indo-European language family). Let us stress the fact that belonging to a particular language family is no indication at all of a given technological level nor of any particular political or religious system. Indeed, there is a large variety of technological levels and of politico-religious systems.

 

We may now look at each of these language families. If we cite first the Austro-Asiatic linguistic family (or the Mon-Khmer) this is because it seems autochthonous to Southeast Asia in its largest sense. Apart from that, this is the family that has the most varied range of social organization: from forest-dwelling nomads, like the Ruc, to those speakers residing in powerful states, like the Viet.

 

Between these two extremes, we may distinguish a great variety of social spaces wherein Austro-Asiatic languages are spoken. In the north the most numerous are the Khmu and the Muong. The Muong language belongs to the same sub-group as the Viet language of which it constitutes in some ways an archaic form. In the center are the Montagnards of the highlands — a term preferable to “Moi” as used by explorers and colonial administrations, which is highly pejorative and was borrowed from the Viet language. We thus suggested a more neutral term, Proto-Indochinese, to characterize in a general way those populations, wherever in the country they may live. The great mass of Austro-Asiatics of the Center may be subdivided into two groups, separated by the Austronesians. North of the latter, one may find the Katu, the Sedang, the Bahnar, the Reungao, and the Jeh. South of the Austronesians is the Mnong-Ma ensemble, represented on by the Sre, the Ma and the Lac.

 

The Austronesian family is present here thanks to recordings collected among the Proto-Indochinese Jarai and Rhade (or Ede). As regards the Cham, the descendants of the former maritime kingdom of the Champa, they are, according to George Coedes, “Hinduized Rhade”.

 

The name of the Thai-Kadai family was made-up in 1942 by the linguist P.K. Benedict, following the evidence of Auguste Bonifacy in 1904 of a direct linguistic relationship between residual groups living on either side of the Sino-Vietnamese border. A.G. Haudricourt associated the Thai and Chuang languages. This linguistic family includes the Tay, the Nung, the Lu and the Black Thai.

 

The Miao-Yao family brings together languages which are among the most complex that be in the world. The Hmong belong to the first group (Miao), and the Mien who belong to the second (Yao), live along the mountain tops and owe their wide renown to the beauty of their costumes and jewellery.

 

The Tibeto-Burmese family includes small groups living in the high mountains traversed by the frontier separating Laos and Vietnam from China. Here we may cite, among others the Hani, the Lolo (or the Yi) and the Phula.

 

We have emphasized the linguistic complexity of Vietnam. Now, the mosaic of the ethnolinguistic map is only partially revelatory, above all in the northern regions. As early as the beginning of the XXth century, Edouard Lunet de la Jonquiere emphasized the overlapping and terracing of different groups. At the valley bottoms, on the banks of watercourses, the Thai are to be found, and at the beginning of the slopes, hamlets of Austro-Asiatics. Above the latter, and sometimes above the proper Kadai, one finds settlements of Yao and Tibeto-Burman speakers. Finally, on the crests, among clearings for cultivated poppies and maize, are the latest arrivals, the Miao. Although this schema is not quite complete everywhere, most of the time we find two or three different populations on levels according to altitude.

 

We find a comparable diversity and complexity in music, as shown by an extraordinary variety of musical instruments. These range from a simple blade of grass to elaborate orchestras of gongs and drums (among other instruments), not to mention a multitude of diverse sound-makers whose prime material is bamboo. We should not overlook stone (such as sonorous scarecrows), and above all the lithophones of central Vietnam, of which the oldest type (without going back to the Hoabinhien period) illustrates a southern feature of the Dongsonien (a bronze-age civilization of ca. 2300-2000 BP of Northern Vietnam whose most characteristic surviving object is the bronze drum). This lithophone has intrigued musicologists because of its unusual scale, as also has the specific voice-placements of certain present-day Montagnard minorities. Now, this musical richness, belonging to the Vietnamese cultural heritage, is in danger of disappearing: it has been made fragile through thoughtless actions by agents of development, insensitive to the diversity of modes and genres-which they ought, for all that, to be able to appreciate in the music and poetry of the Viet (or Kinh), the majority people. The preservation of diversity and musical richness is not only important in its own terms, but would also help to recall the sources of the originality of Vietnamese music.

 

ETHNOGRAPHIC NOTES

 

As with its neighbors, Laos and China, Vietnam shelters (on a rather limited territory) one of the largest varieties of ethnic groups to be found anywhere. There are fifty-three minorities besides the ethnic majority of the Kinh (or Viet) which make up the pluricultural Vietnamese nation. These minorities represent 15% of the total population, some 12 million people, and include all the five major linguistic groups to be found throughout Southeast Asia and southern China. This mosaic of cultures reflects the past migrations which constitute today’s Vietnamese population.

 

On the central highlands, the Austro-Asiatic minorities — who are the genuinely autochthonous people of this Asian region — have particularly suffered from the war, and their way of life has changed. Family and social relations have been transformed, the longhouses abandoned in favor of nuclear residences, rites are tending to be folklorized, traditional costumes are no longer worn. In the north live populations more nomadic than in the center, coming from the south of China (some of them very recently). In such mountainous regions, difficult of access, these minorities have been better protected from external influences: each strongly asserts its identity, in particular through the use of its own language and the daily wearing of costumes specific to each sub-group.

 

 

Peoples of central Vietnam

 

The Jarai

With more than 240,000 individuals, the Jarai are the most numerous of the Montagnard peoples of the highlands of Central Vietnam. The majority of them live in the province of Gia Lai, while smaller numbers are found in the provinces of Kon Tum and the north of Dac Lac. Speaking an Austronesian language, they are related to the Cham and other Proto-Malay cultures of the Indonesian archipelago.

 

They grow rice, for the most part by slash and burn cultivation, but also in wet paddies without irrigation systems. They are good herdsmen and skilled hunters who have developed a great variety of fishing and trapping techniques.

 

Group cohesion depends on a social organization based on the maternal clan. A clan is primarily defined by its name, transmitted by the mother to her children, and those bearing the same clan name cannot intermarry. After marriage, a husband will settle with his wife in the longhouse to which she belongs. This large building, erected on piles, shelters several households, those of an elder woman, her daughters, and sometimes even her

grand-daughters.

 

A village is made up of parallel longhouses, all oriented on a north-south axis. The grain-stores are built on the periphery. Each village has a community house at its center, the place for the communal activities of the men, above all the young unmarried men. The cemetery, close to the village, is an extremely important place for the Jarai, who have particularly developed funeral rites. On the very elaborate tombs there are figurative sculptures — human beings and animals — keeping company with the deceased.

 

The Jarai recognize the political and spiritual authority of three Potao, best known under the name of Sadet: the Lords of Fire, Water and Air, whose prestige extends to neighboring ethnic groups, as far as Cambodia.

 

One of the richest elements of Jarai culture, but the most difficult to understand, is its oral literature — long poetic songs dealing with customs, tales of love, epic and mythic recitations — which Jacques Dournes has collected for over twenty years, and untiringly made known during his life.

 

The Bahnar

The Bahnar are part of the Austro-Asiatic linguistic family, numbering about 136,000 in the provinces of Kon Tum and western Binh Dinh. They are divided in several regional sub-groups such as the Reungao or the Alacong.

 

As with all populations of the region, the Bahnar grow rice by shifting cultivation, with vegetables, cotton, and all the edible and useful plants they need. They are skilled herdsmen, and rear buffalo, beef cattle and poultry for their own diet, and also for commercial exchange.

 

Everyone lives in houses raised on piles, which are rather smaller nowadays than the traditional longhouses where all couples of an extended family used to gather. Every village has a community house, a remarkable edifice topped by a thatched roof, where men meet to deal with village affairs or to organize various rites. The village community is led by a chief and a council of elders.

 

The Bahnar have developed a particularly egalitarian society. They follow a cognatic system of kinship and residence. Children share inheritance equally. As equals, girls may select their husbands, and young couples may choose to go and live with one or other of their parents, as opportunity arises.

 

The Ede (or Rhade)

The Ede (Rhade is a name attributed to them by the French colonial administration) number about 195,000, spread in the provinces of Dac Lac, the south of Gia Lai, and the west of Khanh Hoa and of Phu Yen. As with the Cham and the Jarai, with whom they share a great number of cultural traits, the Ede speak an Austronesian language.

 

The village is dense with both houses and grain-stores in the same orientation, an ensemble which evokes the scales on a tortoise’s shell. The longhouses are always built on piles and in the past sometimes extended a hundred meters. Today they are smaller, the most usual being from 30 to 40 meters according to the number of persons they shelter. A house is divided in two parts: one is communal, where visitors are received and where the men gather, and the other consists of compartments, each for a couple, closed off with a bamboo partition, each with its own kitchen.

 

As with the Jarai, the Ede follow a system of matrilineal descent: mothers transmit their family names to their children, and only women have inheritance rights. A husband settles with his wife in her longhouse, where the extended matrilineal family lives under the authority of the eldest woman, who leads the community and rules on conflicts.

 

The Ede possess a very old and rich oral tradition, which only a few men in any village will know how to present in its poetic and rhymed forms, but of which everyone knows the subject matter.

 

The Sre and the Lac

Vietnamese researchers have included the Lac and the Sre with the Cil under the name of the Coho, to show that their language in fact resembles that of the Ma and is akin to the Mon-Khmer family. The three groups thus called Coho total over 100,000 people living in the province of Lam Dong, south of Dalat. The most numerous, the Sre, live on the Di Linh plateau. With the Lac, they are the most ancient sedentary rice-cultivators, living in

longhouses on piles sheltering several couples, under the authority of an elder.

 

The Lac and the Sre follow a matrilineal and matrilocal system. After marriage, the young man settles with the family of his wife, and their children will take the name of the maternal family. Each nuclear family has its own fields and paddy storehouse.

 

The Sre and the Lac both believe in a large number of genies, yang, dwelling in nature or certain prestigious objects: the sun, moon and water-courses, or jars of rice wine. One of these yang is chosen by each family as its genie-protector. The sacrifice of buffaloes remains an essential social and religious act.

 

The Ma

Speaking Austro-Asiatic Coho, like the Sre and the Lac, the Ma number about 26,000, in the province of Lam Dong. They live in dispersed villages, in longhouses on piles, with only one lineage in each. Some of these longhouses reached nearly 100 meters of length. The greater part of the Ma practice shifting cultivation, using very rudimentary implements.

 

Their craft activities are strictly familial and utilitarian. The Ma are very adept weavers, as the finesse of their different baskets continue to demonstrate. The women make remarkable textiles with woven figurative motifs.

 

The family of the Ma is patrilineal, the extended family giving way more and more to the small nuclear family. Inheritance goes to the eldest son. Most of their rites are connected to the agricultural cycle. As with other groups in the Mon-Khmer language family, the Ma believe in yang genies, dwelling in nature or in everyday life or prestigious artifacts.

 

Peoples of the north of Vietnam

 

The Hani

There are about 12,500 Hani spread between the provinces of Lai Chau and Lao Cai. They belong to the Tibeto-Burmese ethno-linguistic group, which in Vietnam is only represented by some small, rather little-known groups: the Lolo, the Phula, the Xapho, the Sila, the Lahu and the Hani. Coming from the Chinese province of Yunnan, as early as the 15th century, but mostly since the 18th century, they are established in the mountains of the northernmost part of Vietnam, preferring altitudes above 1500 meters.

 

Most of their houses are built either on the ground, as among the people practicing shifting cultivation, or on piles, as among the cultivators of wet rice. Of all groups living in the mountains of northern Vietnam, the Hani are highly experienced in the construction of rice-paddy terraces, dug from the mountainsides, fed with water by canal networks.

 

The Hani are patrilineal, the father and the eldest son having authority over the whole family. They regularly honor their ancestors on the family altar found in each house. Some offerings are also made to the spirits of nature, such as those of rice or of wild game, to ensure abundant harvests or good hunting.

 

The Hani sing long poems recounting myths, heroes of the past, tales and legends. One of the marriage songs of the Hani of Lai Chau is known to have 400 verses.

 

The Yao

The Yao are called Dao (but pronounced as Zao) by the Viets, and known as Man in French texts of the colonial epoch. There are two million Yao in China, half a million in Vietnam, and several thousand in Laos. There are a dozen Yao groups in Vietnam speaking one of two different languages: Mien and Moun. Thus the Yao Do (the Red Yao), the Yao Tien (the Yao with coins), the Yao Quan Chet (the Yao with tight trousers), or the Yao Lo Gang, speak the Mien language, while the Yao Lan Tien (the indigo-blue Yao) or the Yao Quan Trang (the Yao with white trousers) speak the Mun

language.

 

The Yao arrived in Vietnam beginning in the 18th century and settled at many different altitudes, from the plains up to the mountain heights, but generally lower down than the Hmong. According to their zone of habitation, their house styles differ. The most frequent is a house built on the ground, but one also finds among the Yao living in the valleys, in the proximity of the Tay or the Nung, some large houses on piles of wood or of bamboo. A third style of house also encountered is constructed on mountainsides, half on piles and half on the ground. The forms of agriculture practiced, from irrigated rice paddies to slash and burn cultivation, is also diverse. The social unit is the patrilineal family. Monogamy and patrilocality are de rigeur.

 

The Yao have been strongly influenced by Chinese culture, adopting writing and Taoist rites. Shamanic trance is widely practiced as a mode of direct action towards the invisible.

 

The Hmong

The popular name for the Hmong is the Meo. There are about ten million Hmong today, of whom nine million are in China, nearly 600,000 in Vietnam, with the remainder spread between Laos, Thailand and Burma (Myanmar). The Hmong arrived in Vietnam rather late, the greatest wave of migration coming in 1868 after the crushing of the Tai Ping in China. They settled near the Chinese and Laotian frontiers, in the Vietnamese provinces of Thanh Hoa and Nge An.

 

We find several groups of Hmong in Vietnam: the White Hmong, the Flowered Hmong, the Green Hmong, the Black Hmong and the Hmong “with striped sleeves”. These groups speak different dialects of the same language and can only be differentiated through details of their dress. Women’s dress, in very varied styles, everywhere includes an ample skirt, generally wrapped with hemp, decorated with batik, embroidered and appliquéd.

 

The Hmong rarely settle below 1000 meters, practicing shifting cultivation on steeply sloped fields. After one or two rotations of the crop cycles, when the soil is near exhaustion, the cultivated territory is abandoned and the village community disperses. When the relief permits, the Hmong settle today around irrigated terrace rice paddies. Kinship and residence are patrilineal, the head of the family controlling the finances of the

household.

 

The Nung

The Nung number today more than 700,000, settled in the same regions as the Tay (the former Tho), living along the Chinese frontier in the provinces of Lang Son, Cao Bang, Ha Giang and Lao Cai, and also as far as Bac Thai and Tuyen Quang. They are divided into sub-groups, named after their places of origin in China (Nung Inh, Nung An, Nung Phan Sinh, Nung LoiSÿ). Belonging to the Thai-Kadai linguistic group, the Nung language is very close to that of the Tay, both of them having adopted a form of writing based on Chinese ideograms.

 

The Nung left Guangxi in south China beginning in the 12th and 13th centuries, reaching the territories of the Tay, who conceded to them mediocre, barely fertile land. This they improved with considerable effort, and now cultivate irrigated rice paddies with success in the valley bottoms, as well as terraced paddies on the mountainsides. Other products are grown with slash and burn cultivation above the paddies. In the villages, the basic unit is the patriarchal family, a woman once married becoming totally dependent on her husband and parents-in-law.

 

The Nung are Buddhists and Confucianists. Shamans continue to play an important role in village society, and are the last ones who can read the traditional ideograms.

 

The Pa-y (or Pa Di)

Classified as part of Tay ethnic group by the Vietnamese authorities, the Pa-y (which is Pa Di in Vietnamese, pronounced “Pazi”) live in only a few villages in the north of the province of Lao Cai.

 

The women’s costume consists of a long tunic decorated with a large band of silver buttons across the breast, and a long skirt covered by an apron. Their headdress is very characteristic, a kind of rigid helmet of indigo cotton , which is decorated with a silver jewel at the rear, with a ribbon of silver nails over the forehead.

 

The Pa-y remain poor, and as agriculturalists they grow maize and mountain rice for the most part by shifting cultivation. They live in cob-wall houses, with floors of beaten earth. Living in close relations with their neighbors the Nung, the Pa-y have adopted a number of their traditions, in particular the rites attached to birth and death.

 

The Lu

There are only about 3,700 Lu, spread among several villages of the province of Lai Chau, in the districts of Phong Tho and Sin Ho. They speak a Thai language, and are much more numerous in the north of Laos, but mainly in the Sip Song Panna of the south of Yunnan.

 

Their villages group together over fifty houses which, as with other Thai, are built on piles, well-aerated and spacious. Basic nourishment is of sticky rice cultivated in irrigated paddies. Other plants may be grown by slash and burn cultivation. Women’s costume is particularly elaborate, with its small short vest, whose waisted form is emphasized by decorations of pieces of silver. The upper part of the skirt is brocaded with traditional motifs, a weaving technique in which the Lu women are among the best. A long turban is enrolled around a chignon, worn always on the left.

 

The Lu family is patrilineal. As among other Thai groups, a young husband comes to live with his wife’s family for two or three years, before settling in his own house. Young people are relatively free to choose their marriage partners, although the agreement of the parents is always necessary, together with that of the astrologer, who plays an important

role in social and religious life.

 

The Lu are the only Thai minority to have adopted Hinayana Buddhism which is, as in Laos and Thailand, strongly impregnated with animistic beliefs.

 

The Thai

From the south of China, their original habitat, the Thai have spread over a vast territory, extending from the east of India to Vietnam, passing through Burma (Myanmar), Thailand and Laos. The beginning of their migrations is very ancient, seeming to have started about 2000 years ago. Some of them created states, as in Laos and Thailand; others have remained minorities, among whom the Thai of Vietnam, numbering over a million today,

spread in the provinces of Lai Chau, Son La, Hoa Binh and Nghe An, in the northwest of the country.

 

Two principal sub-groups, the White Thai and the Black Thai, may be differentiated by the color of the women’s vests. The short, close-fitting vests are today in different colors, but have kept to their traditional buttoning of chased silver butterflies. All women wear a long black skirt fastened around the hips.

 

Constructed of wood and bamboo and perched upon high piles, the houses of both the White and Black Thai are surprisingly spacious. The most beautiful of them are often over ten meters long and shelter, around a central stove, a family of a dozen persons (usually three generations). The houses of the Black Thai have magnificent, rounded thatched roofs, said to be in the form of “the carapace of a tortoise”.

 

We find a social organization based on a feudal system among all the Thai, which remained rigorous among the Thai in the west of Vietnam up until the beginning of the 20th century. The society, strongly hierarchized, included the aristocratic class of lords and their kin, the one of the highest-placed notables; the remainder of the society was constituted of freemen-peasants and of servants, emancipated former slaves coming most often from neighboring minorities, in particular the Khmu.

 

Feudal social organization has now disappeared, but traditional beliefs in spirits, phi, and the strongly hierarchized genies of the soil, impregnate the religious life of all Thai. With a script adapted from the Sanskrit alphabet, as in Laos and Thailand, their cultural and spiritual heritage has great richness.

 

The Khmu

With 43,000 individuals in the provinces on the frontier with Laos, from Nghe An to Lai Chau, the Khmu constitute the most important Mon-Khmer linguistic group in the north of Vietnam. Coming from Laos (where they are still very numerous), their immigration into Vietnam seems to go back to the 17th or 18th centuries. Settled in Thai principalities, the Khmu constituted, until the beginning of the 20th century, a class of peasants enslaved to local lords. Strongly influenced by the Thai, the Khmu have adopted a number of their cultural traits, such as the Thai’s feminine costume, which more and more replaces their own traditional garments.

 

Generally settled above the Thai, the Khmu practice slash and burn cultivation on often steeply sloping fields which quickly lose fertility. Hunting and food gathering are therefore a far from negligible addition to the diet. The Khmu, for the most part, still lead a nomadic life, and are rather poor.

 

The family name of a Khmu most often designates a plant, an animal, or an object considered as the ancestor of the lineage, which is recalled in the origin myth that each lineage possesses. The Khmu thus retain an important heritage of myths, cosmological accounts and popular tales, marking an ethnic identity that is still strong today.

 

The Muong

The Muong number more than 900,000, mostly settled in the province of Hoa Binh and in part of Thanh Hoa. Originally, the Viet and the Muong formed a single, unique population, and did not separate until about the beginning of our era. The Muong remained in the valleys and foothills of the mountainous zones, and did not fall under the influence of Chinese culture as did the Viet, but to that of the Thai, their most immediate neighbors.

 

As with the Thai, the traditional social system of the Muong was organized in chiefdoms, some of which could expand to a hundred villages. Each of these chiefdoms was ruled by a single lordly family, sharing power under the authority of the eldest, the head of the family. Thai Family and administration forms the one and only structure.

 

A Muong family lives in a large house built on piles, with large openings. The women wear a long black skirt of which the belt, woven in colored motifs, is drawn high upon the breast. They cultivate irrigated rice paddies in descending terraces on hillsides. To irrigate, large bucket-waterwheels drawing water from the rivers are in current use. Other cereals and vegetables are also grown in shifting cultivations above the paddies. Fish have an important role in the diet, and the means and techniques of fishing are very varied, and known to everyone.

 

Up until today, during funerary rites, rites of possession by medium and sacrifices to the spirits, historical, legendary and cosmological accounts of the Muong are sung or chanted

 

 

NOTES ON THE MUSIC

 

 

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

 

Only a few instruments will be described below. Other instruments were used in times past, such as bronze drums and lithophones. Some instruments are still played today: tubes of struck or pounded bamboo, lutes with two or three strings (called tinh tau among the Thai), the tube-zither with two strings (the bro’ of the Jarai), etc. Apart from those made of metal, instruments are ordinarily made by their players and should be destroyed or buried with them when they die.

 

IDIOPHONES

Gongs

To designate gongs, one and the same term cing is employed by several Montagnard populations from two linguistic families of the highlands of the center (Jarai, Ede, Bahnar, Koho, Sedang, Mnong Gar). The gongs are made from an alloy of copper and other metals. Either imported or purchased, the most recent have been made in Vietnam, the older ones which came from Laos or Cambodia being now very valuable (as much as 30 buffaloes for the largest gong). Tales and epic songs often mention gongs, which have always been exchange goods among the Montagnards of the highlands of central Vietnam.

 

There are two sorts of gongs: the flat gong struck on the interior with a mallet of green wood or by the bare hand, and the knobbed or bossed gong (gong with a round swelling on its central surface ) struck with a cloth-covered mallet.

 

Among the Jarai, “every gong has its edge pierced by two holes where a cord is passed through for portability, as a shoulder-strap (light gongs), or for suspended carriage from a beam over two men’s shoulders (heavier gongs), or for hanging permanently in the house (very heavy gongs). Except in special cases, gong-players stand in line or march in file. The place for each gong in the series is ordained by a rule as inviolable as the placing of notes on a musical staff ; if a man changes place to take another gong that he knows better, it is he who changes place and not the gong. Each instrumentalist sounds just one note, at the time required by the melody. The air is often sung through before it is performed (this being also the case among the Lac). The right hand of the player strikes the gong, and the left (when it is a light gong) is placed, or not, on the other side to deaden vibrations and resonance” (Dournes 1965, p. 218). Several gongs of different sizes are habitually grouped in instrumental ensembles, sometimes including a drum. Thus it is among the Montagnards of northern Vietnam (Thai, Tay, Muong, Kho Mu) that two gongs with boss and a large drum beat the rhythms of the dances. In the central Vietnam, small ensembles of three gongs with boss with a large drum are the most widespread, but we also find some ensembles comprising a bigger number of instruments: among the Jarai , Bahnar, Sedang, Ro Ngao, Ede , Ma, Koho, Lac, Hore. Among the Ma, women can play gongs as well as men.

 

Cymbals

Among the Jarai, the korac-korang “are cymbals of copper [about 15 cm in diameter], with a boss and hammered, that one rubs one against the other, with alternating rotational movement. These instruments, bought elsewhere (Cambodia or Laos) at the same time as the gongs, serve only for accompaniment, when desired, to the cinq arap gong-playing ” (Dournes 1965, p.214).

 

Xylophones

Among the Jarai, the trung xylophone consists of eleven bamboo tubes of 36 to 94 cm in length, beveled at one end and attached by a cord, so that alternate tubes have their bevels on one side, and the others on the opposite. One end of the cord will be tied to a house-post or to a tree trunk, and the other end tied around the ankle of the player, so as to suspend the instrument like a hammock. The tubes are struck with two wooden mallets, or with four if it is a duet. Each tube has its name according to its pitch, being ania (94 cm), ci (80 cm), krah (74 cm), keu (72 cm), hloai (64 cm), ania hloi or bot (54 cm, octave of ci (53 cm), octave of krah (52 cm), octave of keu (42 cm), octave of hloai (37 cm) and ania ddat, double octave of the longest tube (36 cm).

 

Neighboring peoples know the same type of instrument under different names: dding dol (Kšho), kleng klong, deng or to glong gloi (Bahnar), kleng klang (Sedang). When two musicians play in duet, one plays the principal melody and the other an accompanying part.

 

The xylophone is played for simple pleasure in the village or in the rice paddy. It is also played to chase away animals which might damage the harvest. Today it also accompanies songs and dances, or is played with other instruments such as the leaves ken la, the one-string fiddle koni, or various flutes.

 

Bamboo buzzing-forks

The dao of the Khmu is made from a tube of bamboo between 100 and 120 cms in length. One of the ends is shaped into two facing tongues 30 cm in length, at the base of which, and on each side, a slit of about 20 cm is kept slightly apart by a string (or wire) crossing the diameter of the tube. When one of the tongues is struck against the palm or the forearm, the instrument starts vibrating and the two slits cause a buzzing sound. The other end is left open, some 15 or 20 cms past a pierced node of the bamboo. Two small holes are placed so that they can be closed or opened by a thumb and one of the fingers, to modify the timbre.

 

Several of these instruments, of different sizes, may be struck simultaneously while accompanying a song. Playing the dao is the preserve of Khmu women of the regions of Tay Bac and the mountains in the west of the province of Nghe An. The Black Thai of Son La have learned to play it and call it hum may.

 

Jews-harps

The Montagnards of Vietnam have two main types of jews-harp whose forms differ according to the material used, whether bamboo or brass. The bamboo jews-harp — called goc (Ma, Lac), rading (Jarai), tuong (Kaho), then (Bahnar), hun toong (Thai), co ech (Ede) — is made from a sliver of bamboo into which a tongue is cut. The musician holds the instrument between his lips with the left hand and plucks the extremity of the tongue

with the right thumb. By modifying the volume of the mouth’s cavity the player selects overtones to make a melody. A small ball of wax fixed to the middle of the vibrating tongue can be adjusted in position to change the pitch of the fundamental.

 

The djam jews-harp of the Hmong is made from a piece of hammered brass, into which a slim tongue is cut. The instrument is held in front of the mouth, and its tongue is set in vibration by plucking with the thumb. This instrument is much prized among the Hmong youth, and used for courtship. Often a girl will give one to a boy in the hope that he will come after nightfall to her bedroom and murmur some amorous messages.

 

MEMBRANOPHONES

Drums

Drums with double skins (one at each end) have a body made from hollowed wood. The skins are of buffalo or oxen, held in place with small wooden pegs.

 

“The Jarai have two kinds of drum: the big one (a meter or more in diameter) is placed horizontally in the house, upon two wooden supports, as if cradled, and the small portable drum used for processional rites (with shoulder-straps, or carried on a beam by two porters). There are two ways to play the drum: tong when it is struck with a piece of green wood (stripped of its bark); pah when it is struck with the open hand. The drum, which marks the meter, is a primary element of Jarai music, being much more rhythmic than melodic. The first of the drummers has the role of a conductor of the other instrumentalists, by giving the cues to start and to stop, by deciding on the rhythm and the loudness” (Dournes 1965, p. 222). Among the Montagnards of central Vietnam the generic term for the drum is hogor (Jarai), or hogor (Bahnar), songgor (Koho). The big drum — hogor m’nang or hogor prong (Jarai), ho gor tak or p’nung (Bahnar) — is used by the Jarai to send messages or to play with the gongs in the course of rites for the spirits or for tutelary genies in the house of the head of the clan. It is often struck by the village chief during various rites. The presence of drums of medium size — po nuong yun (Bahnar) and ho gor cing arap (Jarai) — is indispensable for gong ensembles. Because of this, the drum is held in high regard among the Muong, Bahnar, Jarai and Ede. The northern minorities (Hmong, Tay, Nung, Thai, Muong, Dao) use a large number of differently sized drums, each with its own name.

 

CHORDOPHONES

 

Tube-zithers

The gong tube-zither of the Jarai is made from a single internode of bamboo, the node walls left intact at each end, of 70 to 90 cms in length and from 5 to 8 cms in diameter, furnished with a calabash resonator. Thirteen metal strings, usually recycled bicycle brake-cables, are stretched in a semi-circle across the bamboo tube, lifted by ring-like bridges and tightened by pegs.

 

“One holds the instrument in front, the pegs upwards. The left hand has six strings; the right has seven-three are for the melody and three for accompaniment, plus the high-pitched thirteenth. The strings are named by their notes: three bot, one ding and two keu on the left; on the right, three krah, one ci, two ania and a small high-pitched ania. The notes have the same names as on the copper gongs and one can play the same melodies on

them. The gong is in favor with young men who have a good ear; they play it for pleasure in the evenings, by themselves or at a friend’s place; it attracts girls just as the dding-dek [bundle-panpipes] attracts boys” (Dournes 1965, p. 227).

 

The tube-zither also exists with idioglottal strings, of skin prised up from the body of the bamboo tube. It is found among the Bahnar, Jarai, Sedang, Rongao, Gie Trieng, Lac and the Ma in the two provinces of Kontum and Gia Lai.

 

The one-string fiddle kšni and the zither ddong Among the Jarai, “one finds that one is here in the presence of an original and complex ensemble, that I have never found elsewhere among the Proto-Indochinese, while other instruments here and there have their

equivalents.

 

“The ddong is very simple: it is a two-string zither with a calabash resonator, like a bro’ with neither frets nor sound-holes, being lighter and shorter (50 rather than 80 or 90 cms). It is plucked, like other zithers. Its particularity is that it is not an instrument in itself, but is only part of an ensemble; it is only played with the kšni, in the same hand, holding a stick serving as a bow.

 

Koni.

Its essential element is a vibrating string, whose vibrations are produced by two sources: a bow moving back and forth on the string; a piece of thread fastened to the bowed string, of which the far end is held in the mouth of the instrumentalist; vocal modulations, on the one hand, and stopping the string above the frets; on the other, modify the effect of the vibrations of the single [bowed] string.

 

“The body of the instrument is a section of bamboo about 50 cm long, terminated at one end with a piece of wood shaped as a ‘coiled fern-tip’ and decorated with a pompom. The metal string is fixed at its foot, tightened by a peg and tunable with a bridge; it passes over four frets of wax. The bow is a single stick of bamboo, rubbed with the wax of bees living in tree-hollows. At the position of the peg, a string of china-grass, its length precisely that of the bamboo tube, is fastened to the metal string and fixed at its free end to a rounded plastic tongue which is placed in the instrumentalist’s mouth, behind the incisors.

 

“The instrumentalist is seated; he rubs the bow with wax, turns the peg to obtain the tuning desired; he places the koni almost vertically and holds it with the left hand, between the thumb (towards him) and the four fingers, placed on the frets (away from him), the foot of the instrument held between two toes. He puts the [plastic] tongue behind his teeth, tilting his head back enough to stretch the thread. His right hand holds the bow, a simple stick, like a spoon, making it pass back and forth on the [metal] string, while his left-hand fingers touch its frets, and he hums between clenched teeth, only his lips moving. All song melodies may thus be played, especially (success assured) in imitation of funeral laments. The koni is easy enough to make, but its interpreters are rare; it is played in the house or in the fields, by a man, for musical pleasure. Its sound is strange, distant, plaintive, nuanced, elusive and disquieting.

 

“The koni is an instrument complete in itself, usually played solo. However, as often happens, musicians know how to play the koni simultaneously with the ddong, invented to accompany it. The bow is therefore held in the right hand, placed against the ddong, between its foot and calabash; thumb and index-finger keep the bow and the ddong together, middle and ring fingers plucking its two strings, and the combination sets off, the bow continuing to cross the [metal] string. One artist thus plays a zither and a fiddle at once, while also transmitting his song by means of a piece of thread connected to the bowed string and its resonating tube” (Dournes 1965, p. 227-230).

 

Two-string fiddles

The two-string fiddle — co ke for the Muong and io for the Black Thai — is made of a slender tube of bamboo inserted in a resonator made of a larger tube of bamboo, the latter open on one side and covered on the other by a piece of frog-skin or snake-skin. The two strings, tuned at the fourth or the fifth, are made of banana fiber or of horse-hair. The bowstring is of horsehair, and is not resined.

 

AEROPHONES

 

Flutes

The ding klia is a vertical bamboo flute, 50 to 60 cm long, with four holes in the case of the Lac. It is played for diversion, in front of the house or in the fields. This kind of flute is found more or less everywhere in Vietnam, under different names: rleet (Mnong), klia (Bahnar), pi thiu (Thai), ong oi (Muong), tieu (Kinh or Viet). It is an instrument for men only.

 

Pribislav Pitoeff observes that the kalien duct flute of the Black Hmong is made of a reed-tube of 60 cm pierced with four playing-holes. One end is chamfered about 3 cm, and the opening for expiration for the air is cut 1 cm farther. Inside the beak, the tube’s orifice is stuffed with a piece of twisted-up cloth: when more or less inserted, this plug alters the volume of air in oscillation, thus permitting the tuning of the instrument.

 

Bundle-panpipes

The dding dek of the Jarai “are panpipes of thirteen unequal bamboo tubes, from 35 to 125 cm in length, beveled at one end and bound together. Each tube bears the name of its pitch: bot or but-bung, ci, ding, ania, keu, krah and six tubes of the upper octave, plus a high-pitched thirteenth tube. The breath is directed from some distance towards the tubes, which the left hand holds from underneath, while the right thumb acts as a valve for the longest (deepest) tube, pe’ bot. The dding dek is tuned by trimming the bevels. Though tiring to play, it is the preferred instrument of Jarai girls, making use of it to attract boys. All tunes sung by these young girls can also be played on the panpipes; it is generally for courtship, where feminine imagination is inexhaustible. The dding dek is played once evening falls, on the steps of the house, in a seated position, in view of the effort of breathing required” (Dournes 1965, p.231).

 

Among the Bahnar, the same kind of instrument is called the dding jong. Besides being present among these two groups of Vietnam Montagnard peoples, bundle-panpipes are known particularly in Melanesia, where they extend from New Guinea in the west to Vanuatu in the east, passing by the Solomon Islands. The Jarai piece presented here is the first to be published from South-East Asia.

 

 

Ensemble of whistles

The dding tojuh (“tube-seven” in Jarai) is an ensemble of seven to nine bamboo whistles, unequal in size (10 to 20 cm long, 1.6 to 2.3 cm in diameter), in use among the Jarai and the Ede (or Rhade). Among the Lac, the ensemble consists of only five whistles. Each tube is closed at the bottom end by a node, the players each blowing a whistle as if blowing into a keyhole. The playing of the whistles is reminiscent of the music of the gongs.

 

The leaf

The use of leaves as musical instruments is widespread among the Hmong and the Dao of Northern Vietnam, and among several populations of the province of Gia Lai in the central highlands. The Hmong employ banana leaves, or any other kind of leaf provided it is flexible, smooth, and has an oval shape. The player, by blowing on the leaf, pressed to his upper lip or between his lips, makes it vibrate. This instrument is intended to attract young girls during courtship.

 

Clarinets

The dding bbot of the Jarai is a five-holed bamboo clarinet. The mouthpiece has a beating reed, and the far end is beveled. Known among the Jarai and the Ede, this instrument is played by both men and women for diversion. The instrument called pilang bhang of the Khmu is probably a clarinet of this type.

 

Free-reed instruments

Pribislav Piroeff has observed an instrument with a free reed called pi among the Lu, consisting of a tube of 40 to 50 cm, with seven playing-holes (six on the front and one at the back). Near the mouthpiece, closed and rounded, a rectangular opening is made on which a thin brass plate is fixed, into which a free reed is cut. The instrumentalist places all of this in his mouth, obliquely. Players use circular breathing, drawing air through their nostrils and not interrupting the air-flow after expiration through the mouth. Among the Lu, the pi accompanies different kinds of songs. The pipap of the Black Thai is a free-reed aerophone similar to the pi of the Lu. Instruments of the same type are called buot tak ta among the Ede, ponung boc among the Lac, and tolio among the Bahnar.

 

The dding klut of the Jarai is a free-reed instrument made from a tube pierced with three holes for fingering, and an aperture having an added reed. A whole calabash, whose neck serves as embouchure, is fixed over the window with wax.

 

The toki of the Jarai “is a transverse horn, also known as todiap or dding-rowang, ‘tube gone-to-war’. This is a buffalo or a wild-cattle horn, or an elephant’s tusk (a more ancient version and, of course, more appreciated). The horn is opened at each extremity and in the middle of the concave curvature; at this latter point it has a reed, covered by a parallelepiped embouchure of wood, fixed in place with wax. The mouth blows, the right thumb operates as a valve, and the flat left hand claps and closes or opens the larger opening. It is a very ancient instrument, made for war, exclusively. Formerly the todiap was carved into an elephant’s tusk; in default of ivory it was made from horn, and thus was it named toki, or horn. On leaving for war, it was worn as a necklace; on returning from war, if victorious and if prisoners were being brought, it was played before re-entering the village; on hearing the sound of the elephant tusk, the men remaining in the village played the warrior-rhythm juar on the drums. Today, as with saber and shield, it is just an object for parade, but still used (held only by the hands) during rites of confirmation of manhood of the youths.” (Dournes 1965, p. 232). The instrument has the same name, todiap, among the Bahnar, while it is called koyol among the Lac.

 

Mouth-organs

The mouth-organ is widespread among the Montagnards of Vietnam, except among the Jarai of Choreo, where it is rare. It is generally made of six tubes of different length, fixed in two series into a calabash serving as an air reservoir, hence the name given to it by the Jarai: the dding nam, or “six tubes” . Each tube has a free bamboo reed at its base, and has a hole on the side which must be blocked by a finger to obtain a sound.

 

Small-sized instruments are called by the name rokel among the Sre and the Lac; larger instruments are called kombuot among the Lac and komboat among the Ma. The mouth-organ is used to play the melodies of songs, old or modern.

 

Changes

The “evolution” of music since the 1960’s lets us see transformations in the usage of musical instruments. The young generation prefers the guitar to the 13-string zither, the gong, plastic pipes to the dding clarinet, the western harmonica to the traditional mouth-organ, the dding nam or the komboat.

 

The Vietnamese, of the Viet or Kinh majority, have modernized some of the Montagnards’ instruments, such as the flute of the Hmong (sao meo), used especially by the musician Luong Kim Vinh. The cooangtac, a running-water carillon, has had several bamboo tubes of different sizes added to it. The mouth-organ of the Thai, the khen be, is today adapted to play major and minor chords. The play upon bamboo tubes-klong put (Sedang), dding but (Jarai) or pah pung (Bahnar), which one makes resonate by clapping the two hands in front of the opening, went from a dozen tubes in 1965 to twenty-one in 1968. The Vietnamese have adopted and transformed the one-string fiddle, the koni. The trung xylophone (called dan trung in Vietnamese) has been modified by the musician Nay Pha of the Song and Dance Ensemble of the Highlands, of the Ministry of Culture (which has become known as the Troupe Artistique Dam Sam). Since 1960, Nay Pha has considerably enlarged the number of tubes (up to forty-five tubes, in three tiered ranks), following the chromatic scale, and has played it at numerous international festivals.

 

 

VOCAL EXPRESSIONS

 

Colors and timbres, range and register, inflexions of the voice, intonations between the spoken and the sung, procedures of ornamentation of the melodies and/or of sound-emissions One could ask to what degree such vocal expressions are not the characteristics of certain Montagnard peoples or sub-groups, or whether of genres (such as the epic songs) beyond ethnic and linguistic boundaries, or yet again of individual singers, male or

female. In our present state of knowledge, we can’t answer these questions.

 

The following paragraphs are simply meant to attract attention to the variety of vocal expressions.

 

Ornamentation

The work-song of the Yao Lan Tien and the epic song of the Bahnar contain passages of long-held notes characterized by tremulation (oscillation between two notes) of a melodic range from about a minor second for the first, and from a major second to a minor third for the second; this tremulation is perceived, by its speed-seven oscillations per second-as a tremolo (rapid repetition on the one and same note). In the case of the first song, such passages are followed by ornaments made by a slower and wider oscillation, from a minor to a major third. Some similar ornaments, oscillating up to a fifth, are also found in a song of the Nung Loi, characterized as well by an ornament of sound-production, which is strongly “hatched”.

 

Repeated impulses (around 3 per second) on the commencements (attacks) of vowels periodically appear in the epic songs of the Ma, where the voice may be said to be “guttural”.

 

Some songs make frequent use of melisma (melodic ornaments on one syllable): for example, the courtship song of the Khmu people, the monodic, alternating song of the Lac, and the polyphonic, alternating song of the Nung Loi in which the melismas are primarily by the principal voice.

 

Vocal inflexions and changes of register

The singers make free use of glissando, ascending and descending. These vocal inflexions appear at different places in the melodic lines of a song of the Red Yao, but systematically, at the ends of musical phrases, they are descending. Some descending glissandos are to be heard in the middle of melodic phrases, from the secondary voice in a courtship song of the Nung An, and at the end of the musical phrases, alternating with a long-held note, in a work-song of the Yao Lan Tien. By contrast, an ascending glissando, again in alternance with a long-held note, marks the end of some musical phrases in another work-song of these same Yao Lan Tien.

 

A song of the Nung Loi consists of two musical phrases in which the first ends with a long-held unison note for the men, and a descending glissando for the women; contrary to this, at the end of the second phrase, there is an ascending glissando in head-voice, which also signals the alternance of men/women respectively with women/men. Some phrase-endings in head-voice are also to be heard in a song of the Nung Giang, in alternance with descending glissandos, but what is specific here is a change of register on the same pitch, among both men and women; we will return to this song in the section on vocal polyphony. Some changes of register — chest voice/head-voice — are not only made at the endings but also in the middle of musical segments, e.g. in the voice of a Hani woman, or in Nung Giang and Pa-y songs.

 

Between the spoken and the sung

Some songs of different peoples of the central highlands — but not those of Northern Vietnam — have passages in recto tono, in which several words are pronounced one after the other on the same pitch. In the epic song of the Jarai each of the four principal degrees, succeeding one another in a descending melodic contour, is sounded in turn as recto tono. Some passages in recto tono are also to be heard in a song of the Ma, in an alternating song of the Bahnar, and in an epic song of the same Bahnar which is also singular for sections in spoken-sung, i.e. by a recitation without fixed pitches.

 

Finally, let us mention the song of the Jarai koni fiddle-player: this voice is characterized by large ascending and descending glissandos (together with the sounds of the fiddle), and above all by a very particular articulation, due to the fact that the singer-musician pronounces the words while holding behind the incisors a small plastic disc tied by a thread to the string of the fiddle. The unique color of this voice is different from what one knows of voices sung or spoken, from all intermediary forms found either in Vietnam or elsewhere in the world.

 

 

 

POLYPHONY

 

The Montagnards of Vietnam use different kinds of polyphony: the drone (long-held notes, on one pitch, underneath one or several melodic lines); polphony by ostinato (short repeated melodico-rhythmic formul¾ upon which are superimposed one or several other voices); diaphony (two or more voices separated by certain intervals, progressing in a homorhythmic manner, i.e. in the same rhythm); counterpoint (superimposition of voices which are melodically and rhythmically differentiated). At the edge of polyphony and monody, one should add heterophony (enlargment of a single melodic line by a second performer) and the use of echo (brief temporal delays). While the forms of vocal heterophony and instrumental ostinato-polyphony (above all on the mouth-organ and in gong-playing) of the highlands of the center were relatively well-known, the vocal polyphonies of the Montagnards of the extreme north of Vietnam have remained for a long time unknown in the West.

 

Instrumental polyphonies

The instrumental polyphonies of the Montagnards may be the result of simultaneous playing on two instruments with melodic possibilities (such as fiddle and zither), or may be from several instruments playing together, each with its own single note (as with ensembles of gongs or whistles), or may also be the simultaneous sounding of two or three notes on a soloist’s instrument when its construction permits (zither, mouth-organ, bundle-panpipes).

 

At the edge of polyphony, the playing of the io fiddle and the pipap free-reed instrument among the Black Thai, is heterophonic. The melody, built on an anhemitonic pentatonic scale (five notes without a semitone), ranges over an octave, with two principal long-held notes: the tonic C (at the beginning at the upper octave), and the fifth G. The piece is also characterized by downward glissandos from E to the lower tonic. At certain points of the piece, the Jarai flautist directs the breath simultaneously into two neighboring tubes of the bundle-panpipes, thus obtaining intervals of the fifth and the sixth played in a homorhythmic manner. By applying the regular tapping of a finger to the lower opening of the tube for E, she sounds once in each of the two musical phrases a superimposition of three notes, B-E-G. But the unison is more frequent and, as is the general rule in the polyphony of the Montagnards, it characterizes the ends of musical phrases and of the piece. The hemitonic pentatonic scale (of five notes with two semitones) is characteristic of Jarai music. It is well-known among Vietnam musicians today, who use it in some of their new compositions to lend local color evoking the central highlands in general (without specific reference to the Jarai). The rule of the final unison for a polyphonic piece is broken by the ensemble of five whistles of the Lac where the piece ends on the chord C#-E-G# with the G# a little sharp). The whole of the piece is built on an alternation of this chord with an interval of a minor sixth, A#-F#. The uniformity of this alternation is broken by rhythmical playing. Most of the other instrumental musical pieces presented on these two discs are characterized by ostinato-polyphony, which is above all widespread among the Montagnards of central Vietnam. This consists of the repeated playing of a short formula, in the bass, while the melodic formula, longer, is simultaneously played higher.

 

Thus, in a piece for an ensemble of gongs of the Ma the ostinato in the bass, made of three notes, is played four times under the duration of the melodic formula, which itself is made of three notes. The beginning of the melodic formula varies slightly, the first note being interchangeable between A or F. In a piece for mouth-organ, again of the Ma, constructed on the same principle, the variations of the melodic formula are more numerous: one can count 15 variants out of a total of 39 passages of the melodic formula. A piece for ensemble of gongs among the Lac comprises two melodic formulae of a duration equal to four passages of the ostinato formula; the second melodic formula can be shortened by half.

 

To indicate the next piece to play to the members of the gong ensemble, one of the players (generally the leader) sings sometimes the melodic formula or formulae by itself or in alternance with the bass ostinato formula. In the playing of a gong ensemble among the Ede and in a Jarai xylophone piece, the bass ostinato is made from two notes, while the melody is on three notes. In the piece for mouth-organ of the Lac, the two notes of the

ostinato are combined with four melodic notes.

 

The bass ostinato may be replaced by a single sound, an intermittent drone or bourdon. This is the case for the mouth-organ of the Lac where the melody is built on five notes. In the second Jarai xylophone piece, the melody, with a wider range (an octave plus a fourth), descends lower than the intermittent drone. In the Jarai zither piece, the intermittent drone consists of two notes played simultaneously at the interval of a fifth.

 

The principle of polyphony by ostinato is also present in the piece for the sac bua orchestra of the Muong, composed of two oong khao transverse flutes, a co ke two-string fiddle, four bua gongs with a boss, and a ploong drum. The three high gongs vary an ostinato formula; a stroke on the lowest gong intervenes regularly on each fourth beat of the cycle (ie, every eighth pulsation). The two flutes and the fiddle play melodic phrases at the unison, with slight variations, exceeding in length the cycle of the gongs. The drum often intervenes with three unequally spaced strokes, of which the first sometimes coincides with the stroke of the bass gong. The Jarai musician who plays the one-string fiddle accompanies himself on the gong zither of which he plucks either the two strings (G-C) simultaneously or only the string for the C, making thus a drone on the tonic and the lower fourth. The fiddle rarely plays the same C, but rather on the notes E, F and G. As for the voice transmitted the fiddle’s string by a piece of thread, it rises and covers a ninth. In certain passages there is a superimposition of three components-fiddle, zither, voice — in others, the musician does not sing. As we have already pointed out, the hemitonic pentatonic scale (of five notes with two semitones) is characteristic of Jarai music.

 

Songs with instrumental accompaniment

The accompaniment on the gong zither of a Jarai man is characterized by ostinato formulae.

 

The flute which accompanies the alternating song of the Black Hmong plays essentially two notes a fourth apart, linked by passing notes; the singers commence and finish the musical phrases at the unison, respectively at the lower octave of the flute, distancing from it by weaving above and below. The flute is playing here the role of the second voice of the songs for two voices, which often is notable for long-held notes.

 

In the songs accompanied by free-reed instruments of the Lu, some purely instrumental passages alternate with sung passages. The two instruments of different sizes play at the octave, with the exception of a note added by the smaller instrument. In accompanied passages, instrumental and vocal melodies partially diverge, while keeping the same rhythm, which seems to be determined by the syllabic division of the text. The performers come together at the unison or at the octave at the ends of phrases.

 

Vocal polyphony

The Montagnards of central Vietnam rarely sing together, but at the same time, if it happens as in the case of the song of three Sre women, it is at the unison and not in polyphony. In their alternating songs, a solo singer (male or female) alternates with a second performer. In the north, to the contrary, in particular among the sub-groups of the Nung (Nung Loi, Nung An, Nung Phan Sinh, Nung Giang), the alternating songs, known as sli, are performed by two women in alternation with two men. Each Nung group possesses a characteristic sli air; si oi (Nung Loi), ha leu (Nung An) soong lan, nhi hao (Nung Phan Sing), ta sli (Nung Giang). Their two-voice polyphony emphasizes the harmonic interval of the second, at the same time as using minor and major thirds, the fourth and the fifth. Generally, at the ends of musical phrases, the two voice come back to the unison. The alternating song of the Nung An is intoned by two men. The first voice sings four notes in the range of a fifth (G#, B, C#, D#) while the second voice is limited to two notes (G#, B) enters on the tonic G#-and makes the lower fourth in relation to the C#-sung at that moment by the first voice, then the fifth in relation to the D#. The two voices periodically return to the unison. The interval of a major second is often produced when the first voice sings on the third degree (do) and the second voice on the second degree (ti). The women sing a minor third higher than the men according to the same procedure. Besides the interval of the second, the Nung An, in their songs in two voices, favor the interval of the fifth. The behavior of the second voice, limiting itself to two degrees evokes an intermittent drone on two pitches; the impression of a drone is reinforced by the fact that the tonic (G# for the men and B for the women) is sounded on the longest-held notes.

 

The women’s/men’s alternating song of the Nung Giang is organized in the following manner: a first musical phrase ends on the unison, with — as we have already emphasized — an abrupt change of register, from chest-voice to head-voice, while staying on the same pitch. The second musical phrase does not end at the unison, but at the interval of the second, with a simultaneous fall of the voices. The third and last musical phrase of a strophe ends anew at the unison and in head-voice. The end of the alternating parts of the women (but not of the men) is marked by a passage of one of the voices at a lower fourth, then by a crossing-over of the voices, at the major second, before ending at the unison and in head-voice.

 

In the courtship song of the Nung Inh, the women sing at the unison, with some heterophonic variants. Two men respond periodically, but simultaneously and not successively as in the majority of alternating songs. They also sing at the unison, following a similar melodic contour, but rhythmically shifted and transposed to a fourth lower in relation to the women. The voices of the women and of the men thus develop in an independent manner.

 

The Yao sub-groups seem to prefer heterophony with slight temporal delays; when these delays become more marked and more systematic, one could speak of the practice of echo.

 

The alternating song of the Hani combines several of these procedures. Certain passages are sung alternatively by one of the girls and by the young man, the girl sometimes completing the unfinished musical phrase of the boy; in other passages they sing simultaneously, the young man at the lower octave, with variants. When the second girl intervenes, she sings at the same time as the first, but with a different melody, making a veritable counterpoint. Further on, the first feminine voice joins the second, with variations and temporal delays, like a sort of varied canon. During some brief moments, the three voices sing together.

 

The music of the Tribal peoples in Vietnam represents some characteristics which cannot be found in Vietnamese music of the Kinh people. It should be developed in the future. And it is the duty of Vietnamese musicologists living in Vietnam to pursue their research in the years to come.

 

 

BWW Society Member Dr. Tran Quang Hai was born on May 13, 1944 in the country of Vietnam. He is a talented and renowned musician who comes from a family of five generations of musicians. He studied at the National Conservatory of Music in Saigon before moving in 1961 to France, where he studied the theory and practice of Oriental music with his father, Professor Dr. Tran Van Khe, at the Center of Studies for Oriental Music in Paris. For several years, Dr. Hai also attended seminars on ethnomusicology at the School of High Studies for Social Sciences, and received Master of Arts and Ph.D. degrees. Since 1966, Dr. Hai has given over 2,500 concerts in 50 countries, and has taken part in approximately one hundred international traditional music festivals, as well as in radio and television broadcasts in Europe, America, Asia, Africa and Australia. He has been working for the National Center for Scientific Research in France since 1968, and is now attached to the Department of Ethnomusicology of the Musee de I’Homme. Also, from 1988 to 1995 he was a Lecturer on Southeast Asian music at the University of Paris X -Nanterre.

 

Apart from his artistic activities, Dr. Hai is also interested in musical research. He has improved the technique of spoon playing and of the Jew’s harp. In 1970 he found the key to the technique of overtone singing. During 1990 and 1991 he won four awards at the International Scientific Film Festivals in Estonia, France, and Canada for the film Le Chant des Harmoniques directed by Hugo Zemp, which he co-produced with Hugo Zemp. He has written numerous articles on Vietnamese and Asian music, and has also recorded 15 LPs and 8 CDs and composed four hundred popular songs.

 

As a distinguished figure in his field, Dr. Hai has garnered more than 20 prizes and international awards. He has received a Gold Medal for music from the Asian Cultural Academy, and honorary doctorates from the International University Foundation and the Albert Einstein International Academy. Dr. Hai works with his wife, Bach Yen, who is a great Vietnamese pop and folk music singer. Additionally, Dr. Hai was named President of the Jury of the Khoomei Throat Singing Festival in 1995; he obtained the Cristal Medal of the National Center for Scientific Research in France in 1996, the Medal of Honor of the Limeil Brevannes City in France in 1998, and the Special Prize of the Jew’s Harp Festival in Austria in 1998. In addition, he was the Honorary President of the Festival d’ Auch in France in 1999, and of the Voice Festival of Perouges in France the following year. In 2002 he received the title of Knight of the Legion of Honor nominated by French President Jacques Chirac. His biography has been published in 30 Who’s Who reference books since 1980.

 

To date, Dr. Hai is the only Vietnamese to have taken part as a performer or composer in such great historical events as Australia’s Bicentenary celebration in 1988, the Bicentenary of the French Revolution in Paris in 1989, the 700th Anniversary of the Birth of Switzerland in 1991, the 350th Anniversary of the Founding of Montreal in 1992, the 500th Anniversary of the Discovery of America in 1992, 600 Years of Seoul-Korea in 1994, the Jubilee of the King of Thailand in 1996, the Jubilee of 1,000 Years of Trondheim in Norway in 1997, and the 100th Year Anniversary of the Creation of the Phonogramm Archiv of Berlin in 2000. Additional information regarding Dr. Hai’s work may be obtained via http://tranquanghai.com , https://tranquanghai1944.com

http://www.bwwsociety.org/journal/archive/montagnards.htm

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HƯƠNG HỒ : Phản ứng của ‘Vua muỗng’ khi biết tin ung thư


– “Không biết ngày nào tôi sẽ ra đi nhưng nếu chỉ còn một ngày nữa để sống hay 1 tháng, 2 tháng thì vẫn muốn đó không phải là ngày mình phải nằm trên giường bệnh. Còn sống ngày nào, tôi sẽ vui và tận hưởng ngày đó…”, Giáo sư Trần Quang Hải.

Giáo sư Trần Quang Hải, giáo sư Trần Văn Khê
Giáo sư – “Vua muỗng” Trần Quang Hải.

Tôi đã làm những điều ba mình không làm

Thưa Giáo sư Trần Quang Hải, hơn 40 năm tiếp nối con đường nghiên cứu cổ nhạc dân tộc mà cha ông đã theo đuổi. Ông thấy mình đã thật sự thoát khỏi cái bóng của cha hay chưa?

– Ba tôi là đại giáo sư chuyên môn về nhạc Việt Nam và nhạc Á Châu. Tôi đi theo con đường ông, hấp thụ tất cả những tinh hoa và sự giáo dục của ông. Thế nhưng, không dừng lại ở đó, tôi đi xa hơn về nhạc thế giới bao gồm Phi Châu, Úc Châu, Mỹ Châu…

Ngoài âm nhạc truyền thống tôi còn bước vào thế giới của những người trẻ với những thể loại nhạc Techno, Hiphop… để họ biết rằng những nhà nghiên cứu như tôi vẫn đủ khả năng để cảm thụ và chơi những dòng nhạc hiện đại của họ. Khi mình đã hiểu được sở thích, thú vui âm nhạc của giới trẻ sẽ dễ dàng hơn trong việc tiếp cận và truyền dạy.

Giáo sư Trần Quang Hải, giáo sư Trần Văn Khê

Nghiên cứu và viết các bài giới thiệu, công bố những nghiên cứu của mình đối với thế giới là việc chính. Nhưng tôi cũng muốn những người nước ngoài và những bạn trẻ gốc Việt sống ở nước ngoài biết đến âm nhạc Việt Nam không phải theo kiểu ăn đồ hộp. Bởi vậy thái độ của những nhà nghiên cứu là phải gần gũi, tham gia những buổi nói chuyện với đối tượng và độ tuổi khác nhau. Tôi đã trình diễn hơn 3500 buổi tại 70 quốc gia trên thế giới giới thiệu những nhạc cụ độc đáo của dân tộc Việt Nam.

Giáo sư được đào tạo để trở thành nhạc sĩ chơi đàn violin nhưng con đường nào đưa ông về với nhạc cụ dân tộc?

– Tôi sang Pháp và tiếp tục được học với Giáo sư Đỗ Thế Phiệt để trở thành nhạc công chơi đàn vĩ cầm và nhạc cụ Tây Phương. Khi đó ba tôi đang ở Pháp, và ông đưa tôi đến gặp một giáo sư violin nổi tiếng trên thế giới, là bạn của ông. Sau bữa ăn, vị giáo sư ngỏ ý muốn tôi chơi violin thử bằng cách đưa tôi cây đàn trị giá 1 triệu USD. Lần đầu tiên chơi đàn trước bậc thầy tôi run lắm nhưng sau khi lấy lại tinh thần tôi đã chơi mấy bản.

Nghe xong vị giáo sư đáng kính nói: “Cháu đàn nghe tạm được, khả năng của cháu được đào tạo tốt có thể trở thành một giáo sư violin giỏi, những người như thế có hàng chục nghìn ở Pháp. Nếu cháu giỏi hơn được vào chơi ở Dàn nhạc quốc gia opera của Pháp, ngoại hạng hơn nữa trở thành nghệ sĩ biểu diễn trên thế giới có hàng trăm người như thế ở Pháp. 

Nước Pháp không cần thêm một nghệ sĩ violin, mà cần hơn một nghệ sĩ, một chuyên gia về âm nhạc cổ truyền dân tộc Việt. Cháu may mắn vì có người cha là sư tổ về âm nhạc dân tộc Việt Nam. Vậy cớ sao cháu không quay về cội nguồn? Trở thành một người nối tiếp con đường của cha mình, nối tiếp để giữ vững những truyền thống của Việt Nam?”.

Trong lòng tôi lúc đó thấy buồn nhưng sau đó ngẫm lại thấy ông nói đúng và sau này xin phép ba làm đệ tử. Tôi vẫn nhớ ngày mình nói ý nguyện với ba, ông đã ôm tôi thật chặt, hai cha con rơi những giọt nước mắt của hạnh phúc và sẻ chia. Tôi hiểu, ba đã mong điều này từ lâu lắm rồi. Và chính ông đã nói với giáo sư violin khuyên tôi nên trở về với âm nhạc dân tộc. Suốt 10 năm đi học tôi đã khám phá rất nhiều nhạc lạ lùng, thú vị.

Giáo sư Trần Quang Hải, giáo sư Trần Văn Khê
GS.TS Trần Quảng Hải tại buổi Lễ tiếp nhận sách, băng đĩa tư liệu nghiên cứu âm nhạc của ông cho Học viện Âm nhạc Quốc Gia VN

Từ chối lời đề nghị của chính phủ Pháp

Nhưng tới hôm nay, Giáo sư vẫn đang độc bước trên con đường của mình vì chưa có học trò – đệ tử thật sự nối gót. Đó là điều đáng buồn?

– Đúng, những người theo tôi học để làm các công trình nghiên cứu, các buổi luận văn tại các giảng đường Học viện rất nhiều nhưng đệ tử – học trò ruột tôi không có và chắc cũng “hiếm có khó tìm”. Nhưng tôi không thấy buồn, vì đó là chuyện của những người trẻ không muốn làm, không muốn theo hoặc không thể theo. Tôi là một trong những người khác lạ và có sự đam mê lớn và nhận thức được chuyện quan trọng trong việc đi nghiên cứu cổ nhạc dân tộc.

Tôi từng gặp một phụ huynh có cậu học trò cùng sở thích về âm nhạc dân tộc và đặt câu hỏi: “Anh chị có dám giao con cho tôi trong vòng 10 năm không được gặp? Tôi sẽ huấn luyện cậu này trở thành một nhà nghiên cứu?”, đồng thời tôi cũng hỏi cậu bé: Concó chịu vậy không? và… không ai chịu hết…

Tôi đi theo con đường của ba không phải do ông áp đặt hay bắt buộc. Ông chỉ truyền dạy cho tôi kiến thức, đam mê, nhưng đến khi tôi lựa chọn con đường để đi, để thuyết phục tôi thay đổi, chính ông cũng không nói mà phải nhờ một người khác nói. Với người trẻ không bắt buộc được đâu. Mình phải làm sao để tụi trẻ cảm thấy cái hay cái đẹp, sự hấp dẫn của cổ nhạc để họ có thể ngồi nghe không phải bắt ép.

Giáo sư Trần Quang Hải, giáo sư Trần Văn Khê

Giữa hành trình đến và đi để nghiên cứu về âm nhac dân tộc, trong hơn 40 năm đó đã có lúc nào ông bế tắc, nản lòng và khóc?

– Không hẳn bế tắc, tuyệt vọng nhưng tôi đã khóc… Đó là ngày ba tôi mất, ông đi mang theo một tâm nguyện sẽ thành lập quỹ Trần Văn Khê (Q-TVK) và việc thỉnh nguyện chuyển ngôi nhà 32 Huỳnh Đình Hai trở thành trung tâm Trần Văn Khê (TT-TVK).

Giáo sư Trần Quang Hải, giáo sư Trần Văn Khê

Việc hiến tặng toàn bộ tài liệu nghiên cứu về dân tộc học cho Học Viện âm nhạc Việt Nam thay vì để lại nước Pháp hẳn có mục đích và ý nghĩa to lớn?

– Đúng vậy! Một cánh én nhỏ chẳng thể làm nên mùa xuân. Nếu mình tôi không thể làm hết được, cần có sự cộng hưởng, chia sẻ của tất cả mọi người. Tại Học viện Âm nhạc Quốc gia có những người thay tôi chia sẻ những công trình nghiên cứu của mình, bảo tồn nó để không bị mai một hay thất lạc. Nơi tôi ở bên nước Pháp cũng ngỏ ý mua lại những tài liệu nghiên cứu này và thành lập trung tâm nghiên cứu âm nhạc dân tộc Việt Nam tại đó, đổi lại tôi sẽ được cấp nhà, khoản tiền khá lớn nhưng tôi không đồng ý.

Dù sống nơi xứ lạ hơn 55 năm nay nhưng dòng máu chảy trong tôi là dòng máu Việt Nam, thân thể tôi là con người Việt Nam, tôi nói tiếng mẹ đẻ. Vì thế, không có lý do gì tôi lại hiến tặng tất cả những gì mình dày công nghiên cứu và đặt tất cả tâm huyết, tình cảm về quê hương cho xứ người. Tiền bao nhiêu cũng xài hết. Quan trọng là đến lúc nhắm mắt xuôi tay tôi đã làm được điều có ý nghĩa.

Tôi không muốn sống 2-5 năm trên giường bệnh

Giáo sư đang bị ung thư và ông đối diện với nó như thế nào?

– Tôi chỉ mới biết mình bị ung thư máu cách đây hai tháng khi đi khám sức khỏe. Bác sĩ bảo tôi có thể sống 2 – 5 năm nếu kiên trì xạ trị chiếu điện và theo dõi bệnh thường xuyên còn nếu không vài tháng tôi sẽ chết. Bác sĩ hỏi tôi chọn cách nào?, tôi trả lời: “Tôi muốn vài tháng tôi chết, không muốn sống 2 – 5 năm mà phải nằm trên giường bệnh”. Bác sĩ nói: “Tùy ông thôi nhưng khi gần chết ông sẽ ham sống lắm đấy”.

Đối với tôi, một khi mình đã thỏa mãn những gì mình làm, mãn nguyện ra đi vui vẻ chẳng còn điều gì phải tiếc nuối. Không biết ngày nào sẽ ra đi nhưng nếu chỉ còn một ngày nữa để sống, một ngày hay 1 tháng, 2 tháng nữa để sống tôi vẫn muốn đó không phải là ngày phải nằm trên giường bệnh. Còn sống ngày nào, tôi sẽ vui và tận hưởng ngày đó. Tôi ăn uống như người thường chẳng kiêng khem cái gì, đi những nơi mình muốn đến, làm những gì mình thích và còn dang dở.

Giáo sư Trần Quang Hải, giáo sư Trần Văn Khê

Đó có phải là hệ quả của việc ông  cho phép dùng hóa chất có thể gây ung thư để soi vào cổ họng mình?

– Khi mình làm nghiên cứu, thử nghiệm, mình không biết hậu quả thế nào. Thử nghiệm có thể làm cho mình chết, cũng có thể mang lại cho mình những nhận thức đột phá. Tất cả mọi nghiên cứu có thành quả đều là ngẫu nhiên, chẳng ai biết trước được. Ba tôi đã lo lắng vì tôi dám làm những điều mà ba tôi không làm. Nhưng tôi là người nghiên cứu, khác với người đi trình diễn ở chỗ, tôi phải biết mình hát ở chỗ nào, âm thanh giọng hát mình thoát ra từ đâu…

Trong câu chuyện, chia sẻ của mình ông nhắc đến rất nhiều hai tiếng dân tộc. Điều đó được phát huy như thế nào trong nếp nhà, gia đình của ông ở bên Pháp?

– 60 năm xa đất nước là 60 năm tôi mang theo nếp sống Việt trong ngôi nhà tại Paris, mang theo hàng trăm món ăn Việt trên bàn ăn gia đình. Bữa cơm của gia đình chúng tôi thường có thịt kho nước dừa ăn với dưa hấu hoặc xoài. Ngày tết có bánh chưng bánh tét, Trung thu có bánh dẻo bánh nướng, mồng 5 tháng 5 có bánh trôi bánh chay.

Con tôi ngày xưa học thạc sỹ về âm nhạc, nghiên cứu âm nhạc và 10 năm làm tổ chức những Festival nhạc Tây Phương nhưng sau này bỏ hết bước sang làm ẩm thực, chuyên gia về âm thực. Năm nay nó lại ra cuốn sách những món ăn thuần Việt phân thành từng vùng: Bắc, Trung, Nam. Nó sinh ra ở Pháp nhưng nói tiếng Việt như tôi nói chuyện với bạn.

Không có sự lai căng nào xuất hiện trong những thành viên gia đình tôi. Chúng tôi là thuần Việt.

Cảm ơn những chia sẻ của giáo sư! 

Hương Hồ

 

http://vietnamnet.vn/vn/giai-tri/di-san-my-thuat-san-khau/gs-tran-quang-hai-doi-mat-voi-can-benh-ung-thu-mau-369969.html

GS TRẦN QUANG HẢI : Nhạc cụ “đặc hữu” của Việt Nam


Nhạc cụ “đặc hữu” của Việt Nam (20/01/2017)

VH- Sau bài viết của tôi về Đàn Bầu là của Việt Nam hay Trung Quốc? vào đầu tháng 8, cảnh báo việc có thểmất “chủ quyền” của đàn Bầu, tiếp theo là bài của Hà Đình Nguyên trên báo Thanh Niên Cần sớm khẳng định “chủ quyền” với đàn Bầu (cũng vào tháng 8.2016), Viện Âm nhạc thuộc Học viện Âm nhạc Quốc gia VN (gọi tắt là Học viện) tổ chức hai hội thảo quan trọng: “Tôn vinh đàn Bầu trong Festival âm nhạc mới Á – Âu 2016” tại Hà Nội từ 12 – 18.10.2016 và hội thảo “Đàn Bầu và vai trò của nó trong nền văn hóa” vào ngày 21.10.2016.

 Hội thảo khoa học về đàn Bầu

Tại hội thảo, PGS.TS Nguyễn Bình Ðịnh, Viện trưởng Viện Âm nhạc phân tích: “Trong số các đàn một dây trên thế giới (Ichigenkin của Nhật, Tushuenkin của TQ, Sadieu của Cao Miên, Gopiyantra, Ektara của Ấn Độ), đàn Bầu VN được đánh giá là độc đáo bởi là loại đàn duy nhất phát ra âm bồi; chỉ có một dây, không có phím bấm nhưng có thể chơi được tất cả các độ cao; có khả năng trình diễn các kỹ thuật rung, nhấn, nhất là các dạng luyến láy, tô điểm âm khác nhau nên rất phù hợp với giai điệu âm nhạc của VN. Do sử dụng kỹ thuật uốn vòi đàn, tạo ra sự căng chùng khác nhau của dây đàn, nên đàn Bầu là nhạc cụ duy nhất trên thế giới với một lần kích âm có thểcho một âm cơ bản và các âm khác có độ cao hoặc thấp hơn hẳn âm cơ bản ấy”.

Giáo sư Trần Quang Hải là một trong những học giả lên tiếng về chủ quyền của cây đàn Bầu Việt Nam trong thời gian gần đây. Từ Pháp, giáo sư đã gửi cho chúng tôi tập tư liệu viết và sưu tập cá nhân về đàn Bầu lên tới 11 trang với rất nhiều thông tin của các học giả, chứng cứ lịch sử cũng như quan điểm của cá nhân giáo sư. Từ đây, chúng tôi rút gọn, chọn lọc và trích đăng trong khuôn khổ phù hợp với một bài báo. Tựa đề chính và các tựa đề phụ do Tòa soạn đặt.

Cùng với thời gian, đàn Bầu luôn được cải tiến, qua sự nghiên cứu, tìm tòi của nhiều nghệ sĩ. Thuở ban đầu, đàn chỉ đơn giản làm từ một ống bương hoặc vầu, mai; ngựa đàn là mảnh sành, sứ hoặc một miếng gỗcứng; vòi đàn là một que tre dài; dây đàn làm bằng dây móc, gai, tơ; bầu đàn bằng vỏ quả bầu nậm khô hoặc vỏ gáo dừa khô. Ðến nay, đã có những thay đổi với thân đàn làm bằng gỗ tiện theo hình quả bầu nậm; dây đàn bằng hợp kim… Việc áp dụng khoa học công nghệ giúp âm thanh được phóng to, tiếng đàn còn có thể ngân được độ dài gấp nhiều lần trước đây. Ðàn Bầu có thể biểu diễn trên sân khấu lớn, với tất cả các loại nhạc cụ của dàn nhạc dân tộc, bộ gõ, dàn nhạc điện tử, dàn nhạc giao hưởng. Ðiều này đã giúp các nhạc sĩ thuận lợi hơn trong việc sáng tác cho đàn Bầu.

Trở lại lịch sử, ngay từ năm 1956, đàn Bầu đã được đưa vào giảng dạy chính quy tại Trường Âm nhạc VN (nay làHọc viện). Nhiều học sinh nước ngoài cũng đến xin học đàn Bầu tại đây. Năm 1978, Nhạc hội đàn Bầu lần thứ nhất và Hội thảo đàn Bầu do Viện Âm nhạc VN tổ chức được đông đảo nghệ nhân, nghệ sĩ nhiều lứa tuổi tham gia.

Tháng 12.2014, Câu lạc bộ “Nghệ thuật đàn Bầu VN” ra đời, phối hợp Học viện tổ chức Nhạc hội đàn Bầu năm 2014 – 2015, quy tụ được nhiều nghệ sĩ chuyên nghiệp và không chuyên trong và ngoài nước tham dự. Là người phục chế cây đàn Bầu mộc đầu tiên từ năm 1990, mấy năm gần đây, NSND Xuân Hoạch đưa đàn Bầu trở lại biểu diễn tại chiếu xẩm Hà Thành ngay phố cổ, được khán giả Thủ đô và du khách hưởng ứng.

Cây đàn Bầu là nhạc cụ “đặc hữu” của VN từ rất xa xưa và gắn liền với đời sống của người dân. Trong kho tàng âm nhạc VN có các bài bản cho đàn Bầu dựa trên các bài dân ca Quan họ, Lý, Hát ru, Chèo, Tuồng, Ca Huế, Đờn ca tài tử… Ngoài ra, đàn Bầu còn dùng để đệm cho ngâm thơ, hoặc độc tấu, song tấu, tứ tấu, dàn nhạc giao hưởng dân tộc… Các nhạc sĩ VN đã sáng tác những bản cho đàn Bầu như: Vì miền Nam (Huy Thục), Niềm tin tất thắng (Khắc Chí), Hồi tưởng (Xuân Thi), Đối thoại (Đỗ Hồng Quân), Dòng kênh trong (Hoàng Đạm), Buổi sáng sông Hương, Cung đàn đất nước (Xuân Khải), Gửi Thu Bồn, Quê mẹ (Khắc Chí), Gửi Huế mến yêu (Đình Long), Gửi đến Ngự Bình (Quốc Lộc), Thoáng quê (Thanh Tâm), Câu hát mẹ ru (Phú Quang)…

Đàn Bầu trong dàn nhạc giao hưởng Ảnh: Nguyễn Đình Toán

Nghệ sĩ VN dạy đàn Bầu cho nghệ sĩ TQ

Qua sự tìm hiểu trong thư tịch và hiện vật khảo cổ học cũng như lịch sử chữ viết có một số sách sử quan trọng có đề cập đến đàn Bầu. Theo An Nam chí lược, Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, Đại Nam thực lục tiền biên… cây đàn bầu ra đời xuất phát điểm ở vùng đồng bằng Bắc Bộ, sau đó được người Kinh VN mang sang Quảng Tây, TQ.

Dẫu thế, vài năm nay ở TQ đã có những festival nhạc dân tộc với những màn biểu diễn đàn Bầu. Trên trang web China Daily USA đăng bài cùng hình ảnh của Xinhua với chú thích “Hàng trăm người dân tộc Kinh thiểu số cùng chơi đàn độc huyền cầm” trong một lễ hội truyền thống ở nước này. Bài viết nói rằng tộc người Kinh (Jing) này đã di cư từ VN sang TQ từ khoảng 500 năm trước và hiện tộc người này có khoảng 22.000 người. Nhạc sĩ Đức Trí, người đã nhiều năm theo học đàn bầu chia sẻ: “Tôi chợt nhớ, cách đây 10 năm, tôi tình cờ xem được trên kênh truyền hình CCTV của TQ một chương trình hòa tấu nhạc dân tộc và đã rất kinh ngạc khi thấy có cây đàn Bầu trong dàn nhạc dân tộc TQ. Đây là điều chưa từng thấy trước đó”.

Tuy nhiên, cây đàn Bầu phổ biến tại TQ hiện nay là đàn Bầu VN. Theo một số nghệ sĩ và nhà nghiên cứu (NNC) âm nhạc, đàn Bầu chỉ mới được TQ lưu tâm đến không đầy 20 năm sau này, vì trước đó không thấy dạy đàn Bầu ở các nhạc viện TQ. Họ đã gửi nhạc công sang VN học đàn Bầu; đồng thời, mời một số NNC sưu tầm tài liệu để viết về đàn Bầu và đưa lên mạng thông tin đàn Bầu rất được người dân tộc Kinh ở TQ yêu thích.

Theo NNC Đặng Hoành Loan [4], kể từ khi nghệ sĩ đàn Bầu Mạnh Thắng biểu diễn trên sân khấu cố đô Yangon (Myanmar), đến các cuộc lưu diễn khắp thế giới, các nghệ sĩ VN đã làm cho đàn Bầu trở thành cây đàn được thế giới biết đến và yêu thích. Bổ sung cho chi tiết 2 nghệ sĩ Đức Nhuận và Đoàn Anh Tuấn từng dạy đàn Bầu cho nghệ sĩ TQ, NSND Đỗ Lộc chia sẻ: “Nghệ sĩ Điền Xương của TQ đi theo đoàn VN suốt thời gian đoàn lưu diễn để được thầy Đức Nhuận chỉ dẫn về đàn bầu…”.

Trong khi, NSND Nguyễn Tiến kể: “Cuối năm 2013, tôi đã từng nói chuyện và biểu diễn minh họa về lịch sửphát triển cây đàn Bầu VN tại Học viện Dân tộc Quảng Tây, nơi cũng có một khoa giảng dạy đàn Bầu. Cả hội trường vô cùng ngạc nhiên. Trưởng khoa đàn Bầu (và là người chỉ huy dàn nhạc của Học viện) là Thái Ương đã nói với tôi: Nghe anh nói chuyện cả buổi sáng nay tôi mới hiểu được hết cái hay và cái đẹp của cây đàn Bầu VN. Học viện chúng tôi có khoa Đàn Bầu vì có một số học viên là người dân tộc Kinh có nhu cầu nên chúng tôi dạy thôi. Hiện nay cũng có học sinh TQ đang học tại Học viện Âm nhạc Quốc gia VN về đàn Bầu. Có cô gái TQ tên là Tôn Tiến cũng từng gặp tôi để học hỏi về đàn Bầu”.

Nghệ sĩ đàn Bầu Ảnh: Tr. Huấn

Đàn Bầu cùng hòa tấu với dàn nhạc trong chương trình nghệ thuật “Mùa đông xứ Huế” tại Nhà hát Lớn Hà Nội (tháng 12.2016) Ảnh: T.Huấn

Sở hữu nhiều tư liệu quan trọng

Đàn Bầu
Đàn Bầu ai gảy thì nghe
Làm thân con gái chớ nghe đàn Bầu
(Ca dao)
Đêm nằm ngoảnh mặt về Nam
nghe rơi thẳm một tiếng đàn trong khuya
Tiếng thơ ai mở lời kìa
đàn Bầu ai gảy tôi nghe đàn bầu
Võng chành như chiếc thuyền câu
đưa tôi trôi giữa nông sâu tiếng đàn
bồng bềnh mạn nhặt mạn khoan
thời gian có phím không gian có hình
Đàn xưa ai tính ai tình
một mình ai gảy một mình ai nghe
ai người con gái vùng quê
mê ai quá đỗi mà ghê tiếng đàn
Bây giờ cũng nhặt cũng khoan
ngang trời ta bắc cầu sang với mình
ai buông lửng một cái tình
để ngân nga đến rung rinh lòng người
Tôi mê người lắm người ơi
cái tai thì cạn cuộc đời thì sâu
lẩy lên đi hỡi đàn Bầu
những tâm tình ở đằng sau tâm tình

Nguyễn Duy
Trích từ Ghi chép Trường Sơn 1975 in trong tập Cát trắng, NXB Quân đội Nhân dân, 1995

Theo NNC Đặng Hoành Loan, cách chơi đàn Bầu dây buông là lối chơi ra đời trước nhất, có khởi đầu từ câu chuyện tổ nghề Xẩm chơi đàn một dây thời nhà Đinh (968-980) [4]. Cũng theo NNC, rất có thể lối chơi này kéo dài suốt 802 năm cho tới năm 1770 thời chúa Nguyễn Phúc Thuần (1765 – 1777) mới có thêm cách chơi bồi âm. Cách chơi bồi âm ra đời làm thay đổi chất lượng và phong cách nghệ thuật đàn Bầu, đưa cây đàn xâm nhập vào một số hình thức sinh hoạt âm nhạc trong cung đình. Sự kiện này được các nhà làm sử thời Nguyễn để mắt đến và chép trong bộ sử Đại Nam thực lục tiền biên.

Theo đó, người sáng tạo ra đàn Nam cầm (đàn Bầu) là Tôn Thất Dục. Nguyên văn: “Dục hiếu học, giỏi thơ, càng tinh về thuật số và âm nhạc, tục truyền đàn Nam cầm là do Dục chế ra”. Hơn một trăm năm sau, đàn Bầu đã tham gia sâu rộng vào nghệ thuật ca hát thính phòng Huế.

Có lẽ điều đó đã làm cho các học giảnhư Hoàng Yến và G. Cordier cùng cho rằng đàn Bầu được đưa vào Huế năm 1892 đến năm 1896. Theo NNC Hoàng Yến [6], năm 1892, đàn Bầu mới được những người hát xẩm phía Bắc đưa vào xứ Huế để đệm đàn cho một số bộ phận vương quan tiến bộ yêu thích thanh âm trong trẻo, nỉ non đó.

Cuối TK XIX đầu TK XX, Vua Thành Thái – một trong ba vị vua yêu nước thời Pháp thuộc, yêu tiếng đàn Bầu như hơi thở quê hương xứ An Nam, lúc đó đàn Bầu mới được thay thế đàn tam trong ngũ tuyệt tranh-tỳ-nhị-nguyệt và bầu. Tiếp đó, đàn Bầu có mặt trong Đờn tài tử Nam bộ từ năm 1930 do những người miền Trung vào khai khẩn đất hoang vào cuối thế kỷ XIX. Đàn Bầu được gọi là “đờn một dây” hay “đờn độc huyền”.

Cây đàn này cũng được nhiều học giả người Việt quan tâm nghiên cứu trong hơn nửa thế kỷ qua. Cố GS. Trần Văn Khê đã miêu tả đàn độc huyền – không dùng từ đàn Bầu trong quyển luận án bảo vệ tại Paris năm 1958 [2], và trong quyển Vietnam/Traditions Musicales do nhà sách Buchet/Chastel xuất bản tại Paris năm 1967 [3]. Tôi có viết bài miêu tảđàn độc huyền – không dùng từ đàn Bầu trong quyển Music of the world [1] do Nxb J.M.Fuzeau phát hành, Courlay, Pháp, 1994.

Cách đây 7 năm, nữnhạc sĩ Quỳnh Hạnh (trong nhóm Hoa Sim được thành lập ở Saigon từ thập niên 60) bảo vệ luận án Tiến sĩ về đàn Bầ u thành công tại trường đại học Sorbonne Paris 4. Ngoài phần miêu tả nhạc cụ và dân tộc nhạc học, còn có phần viết về việc sử dụng đàn Bầu trong cách chữa bịnh (bệnh) tâm thần (musicothérapie) [2]. Ở trong nước, Học viện có 3 luận văn Cao học và 1 luận án Tiến sĩ về đàn Bầu được bảo vệ thành công [5]: NSND Nguyễn Thị Thanh Tâm bảo vệ luận án cao học năm 1999 với đề tài Một số vấn đề về giảng dạy và biểu diễn đàn bầu ở Nhạc viện Hà Nội.

Tiếp theo, Nguyễn Thị Mai Thủy bảo vệ luận văn Cao học năm 2007 về Giảng dạy đàn bầu bậc trung học dài hạn tại Trường Cao đẳng Nghệ thuật Hà Nội. Sun Jin (Tôn Tiến), người TQ, bảo về luận văn Cao học năm 2009 về Đàn Bầu với việc giảng dạy tại trường đại học Quảng Tây, TQ. Cũng Sun Jin bảo vệ luận án Tiến sĩ năm 2015 về Nghệ thuật đàn Bầu trong giai đoạn mới tại VN [5]. Với sự kế thừa và phát triển đàn Bầu, Tôn Tiến muốn trên cơ sở của người trước đã làm và đề ra vài ý kiến mới, đó là những quan điểm “hoạt hóa”, “tiến hóa” và “tiêu chí hóa”. Trong đó, “hoạt hóa” có yêu cầu giữ gìn và đa dạng hóa các hoạt động nghệ thuật biểu diễn đàn Bầu. “Tiến hóa” có ý nghĩa đổi mới nội dung và hình thức để phát triển nghệ thuật đàn Bầu. “Tiêu chí hóa” mang nghĩa đại diện của khu vực, làm nổi bật vịtrí của nghệ thuật đàn Bầu.

Như vậy, theo tôi trong giai đoạn hiện tại, việc làm quan trọng nhất và khẩn thiết nhất là đưa đàn Bầu vào danh sách Di sản văn hóa phi vật thể quốc gia để làm căn cứ quan trọng nhằm xác lập “chủ quyền” của nhạc cụ này hoàn toàn thuộc VN. Đó là tiền đề để tiến tới việc thiết lập hồ sơ pháp lý, để thế giới công nhận đàn Bầu của VN làdi sản của nhân loại.

Tham khảo:
1. Trần Quang Hải (1994): The đàn độc huyền – monochord (from the book MUSIC OF THE WORLD, published by J.M.FUZEAU, Courlay, France, p.298-299, 1994
2. Trương ThịQuỳnh Hạnh (2009), “Le đàn bầu, monocorde vietnamie), Étude organologique et ethnomusicologique” (Đàn bầu: nghiên cứu nhạc cụvà dân tộc nhạc học). Thèse de doctorat en Ethnomusicologie, soutenue le 25 novembre 2009 à l’Université de Paris IV-Sorbonne (Maison de la Recherche), Directeur de thèse: François Picard, 1 volume (299 pages), 1 DVD, 1 CD
3. Trần Văn Khê (1962), “Le đàn độc huyền” in La Musique traditionnelle vietnamienne , Presses Universitaires de France (nhà xuất bản), Annales Du Musée Guimet, trang 133-139, Paris.
4. Đặng Hoành Loan, 2016, “Tản mạn chuyện đàn bầu”, tham luận Hội thảo đàn Bầu vàvai tròcủa nótrong nền văn hóa Việt Nam, ngày 21.10 tại HàNội.
5. Tôn Tiến (Sun Jin) (2015), “Nghệ thuật đàn Bầu trong giai đoạn mới tại Việt Nam”, Luận án Tiến sĩ âm nhạc, bảo vệ tháng 8.2015, Học viện Âm nhạc quốc gia VN, 183 trang, Hà Nội.
6. Hoàng Yến (1919): “La Musique à Huế: Đàn Nguyệt et Đàn Tranh”, in BAVH (Bulletin des Amis du Vieux Huế), trang 233-381, Huế.

GS Trần Quang Hải

(Pháp)

http://www.baovanhoa.vn/Vanhoaxuan2017/89109.vho

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